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Korean Seon* Buddhism

*Hangul: 선
*Hanja: 禪

PDF: On the Romanization of Korean Buddhist Terms

Korean alphabet to Latin alphabet
http://www.lexilogos.com/keyboard/korean_conversion.htm

 

Masters

백운경한 / 白雲景閑 Baegun Gyeonghan (1298-1374)

백남준 / 白南 準 / Baek Namjun (1932-2006), aka Nam June Paik

백파긍선 / 白坡亘璇 Baekpa Geungseon (1767-1852)

법정 / 法頂 Beop Jeong (1932-2010), aka Bop Jong

무주청화 / 無住淸華 Muju Cheonghwa (1923-2003)

묘공대행 / 妙空大行 Myogong Daehaeng (1927-2012), aka Daehaeng Kun Sunim

대원 문재현 / 大圓 文載賢 Daewon Moon Jae-hyeon (1936-)

도림법전 / 道林法傳 Dorim Beopjeon (1925-)

도선 / 道詵 Doseon (827-898)

김일엽 / 金一葉 Gim Iryeop (1896-1971)

김명국 / 金明國 Gim Myeong-guk (1600-1662?)

고암상언 / 古庵祥彦 Goam Sangeon (1899-1988)

고봉경욱 / 高峯[古峯,古峰] 景昱 Gobong Gyeonguk (1890-1962)

구산수련 / 九山秀蓮 Gusan Suryeon (1908-1983), aka Kusan Sunim

학명계종 / 鶴鳴啓宗 Hakmyeong Gyejong (1867-1929)

경봉정석 / 鏡峰靖錫 Gyeongbong Jeongseok (1892-1982)

경허성우 / 鏡虛惺牛 Gyeongheo Seongu (1846-1912)

한암중원 / 漢岩重遠 Hanam Jungwon (1876-1951)

향곡혜림 / 香谷蕙林 Hyanggok Hyerim (1912-1978)

혜암현문 / 慧庵玄門 Hyeam Hyeonmun (1886-1985)

혜암성관 / 慧菴性觀 Hyeam Seonggwan (1920-2001)

혜월혜명 / 慧月慧明 Hyewol Hyemyeong (1862-1937)

효봉학눌 / 曉峰學訥 Hyobong Haknul (1888-1966)

청허당 휴정 / 淸虛堂集 Cheongheodang Hyujeong (1520–1604)

일연 / 一然 Iryeon (1206-1289)

전강영신 / 田岡永信 Jeongang Yeongsin (1898-1975)

진각혜심 / 眞覺慧諶 Jingak Hyesim (1178-1234), aka 무의자 / 無衣子 Mu-uija

진제법원 / 眞際法遠 Jinje Beopwon (1934-)

보조지눌 / 普照知訥 Bojo Jinul (1158–1210)

조오현 / 曺五鉉 Jo O-hyeon (1932-), aka 설악무산 / 雪嶽霧山 Seorak Musan; 만악 / 萬嶽 Manak

만공월면 / 滿空月面 Mangong Wolmyeon (1871-1946)

고승 무학 자초 / 高僧 無學 自超 Goseung Muhak Jacho (1327-1405)

정중무상 / 浄衆無相 Jeongjung Musang (680-756, alt. 684-762), alias 김화상 / 金和尚 Gim hwasang

명적도의 / 明寂道義 Myeongjeok Doui (? ~ ?)

법계명성 / 法界明星 Beopgye Myeongseong (1931-)

나옹혜근 / 懶翁慧勤 Naong Hyegeun (1320–1376)

사명당 / 泗溟堂 or 四溟堂 Samyeongdang (1544–1610), aka 유정 / 惟政 Yujeong

서암홍근 / 西庵鴻根 Seoam Honggeun (1917-2003)

선경 / 仙境 Seongyeong (1903-1994), aka Son'gyong Sunim

퇴옹성철 / 退翁性徹 Toeong Seongcheol (1912-1993)

서옹상순 / 西翁尙純 Seoong Sangsun (1912-2003)

수봉 / 秀峰 Su Bong (1943-1994)

수불 / 修弗 Subul (1953-)

숭산행원 / 崇山行願 Sungsan Haengwon (1927-2004), aka Seung Sahn

순지요오 / 順支了悟 Sunji Yoo (n.d.), aka Sun-chi

태고보우 / 太古普愚 Taego Bou (1301-1382), aka 보우국사 / 普愚國師 Bou Guksa 태고국사 / 太古國師 Taego Guksa

운봉성수 / 雲峰性粹 Unbong Seongsu (1889-1944)

의상 / 義湘 Uisang (625-702)

초의의순 / 草衣意恂 Choui Uisun (1786-1866)

원담진성 / 圓潭眞性 Wondam Jinseong (1926-2008)

원효 / 元曉 Wonhyo (617-686)

용성진종 / 龍城震鍾 Yongseong Jinjong (1864-1940)

 

Korean Lineage Charts of the Zen Ancestors

 

Nine Mountain Schools of Seon (Sŏn) Practice in Korea 禪門九山
http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/korea.html

Nine Mountain Schools 禪門九山 (C = Chánmén Jiǔshān, K = Seonmun Gusan 선문구산, J = Zenmon Kyūsan). An appellation for the early schools of Korean Seon (Sŏn) practice. Each school was connected with one of nine mountain monasteries. The nine are listed below.

  1. Gaji-san school (迦智山), established at Borimsa (寶林寺) under the influence of Doui (道義; d. 825) and his grand-student Chejing (體澄; 804–890). Doui studied in China under Zhizang (智藏; 735–814) and Baizhang (百丈; 749–814).
  2. Seongju san (聖住山) school, established by Muyeom (無染; 800–888) who received his inga 印可 from Magu Baoche (麻谷寶徹; b. 720?).
  3. Silsang san (實相山) school, founded by Hongcheok (洪陟; fl. 830), who also studied under Zhizang.
  4. Huiyang san (曦陽山) school, founded by Beomnang and Jiseon Doheon (智詵道憲; 824–882), who was taught by a Korean teacher of the Mazu transmission.
  5. Bongnim san (鳳林山) school, established by Wongam Hyeon'uk (圓鑑玄昱; 787–869) and his student Simhui (審希, fl. 9c). Hyeon'uk was a student of Zhangjing Huaihui (章敬懷暉; 748–835).
  6. Dongni san (桐裡山) school, established by Hyecheol (慧徹; 785–861) who was a student of Jizang.
  7. Sagul san (闍崛山) school, established by Beom'il (梵日; 810–889), who studied in China with Yanguan Qian (鹽官齊安; 750?-842) and Yueshan Weiyan (樂山惟嚴).
  8. Saja san (獅子山) school, established by Doyun (道允; 797–868), who studied under Nanjuan puyuan (南泉普願; 748–835).
  9. Sumi-san school (須彌山) founded by Leom (利嚴; 869–936), which had developed from the Caotong 曹洞 lineage. The term Gusan in Korea also becomes a general rubric for "all the Seon schools," holding such connotations down to the present.

 

* * *

PDF: 僧 求道者 SANGHA. THE GREAT SEEKER, 3rd Special Exhibition
韓国仏教中央博物館 Central Buddhist Museum, Seoul, p. 114.

PDF: Chanting with English translations and Temple Rules
by The Kwan Um School of Zen
Foreword by Zen Master Seung Sahn

PDF: Zen Liturgy: Korean Sŏn Practice Forms
by Paul Dōch‘ŏng Lynch, JDPSN
Before Thought Publications, Huntington Beach, 2008

Cf. http://kwanumzen.org/wp-content/uploads/Dharma_Mirror_3rd-Edition_V2.pdf

* * *

Writings

PDF: Makers of Modern Korean Buddhism
Edited by Jin Y. Park

PDF: Korean Buddhist Thought in East Asian Context
by Robert E. Buswell, Jr

PDF: Becoming a Buddhist Nun in Korea: Monastic Education and Ordination for Women
by Hyewon Kang
International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture September 2003, Vol. 3, pp. 105-129.

PDF: Women in Gray Robes
Continuity in the Traditional and Contemporary Religious Identity of Korean Buddhist Nuns
by Chungwhan Sung
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 2011, 308 p.

PDF: The Sōtō Sect and Japanese Military Imperialism in Korea
by Nam-lin Hur
Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 1999 26/1-2

Doing practice by Ganhwaseon in America
From International Symposium of Bojo Thoughts Institute, 16, November, 2005
Ven. Jong-Ho (Prof. Mun Gi, Bark) Dept. of Seon, Dongguk Univ. & Graduate School

Kanhwa Sŏn Concepts & Keywords

Buddhism in Modern Korea
by Pak Kyong-Hun
Korea Journal, Vol. 21. No. 8, Aug., 1981 pp. 32~40.
https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=1917

Korean texts in English
http://www.buddhism.org/board/main.cgi?board=Seon

Korean Buddhism: A Short Overview by Charles Muller
http://www.acmuller.net/kor-bud/koreanbuddhism-overview.html

Thought and Praxis in Cotemporary Korean Buddhism: A Critical Examination
by Jongmyung Kim
http://www.undv.org/vesak2012/iabudoc/02JKimFINAL.pdf

 

Chong An Sunim, aka 청안 / 淸眼 Cheong An (1966-), eredeti neve: Virágh Szabolcs

Martine Batchelor (1953-)

Robert E. Buswell, Jr.

Hyon Gak [현각 / 玄覺 Hyeongak], born Paul J. Muenzen (1964-)

Paul Lynch (1957-)

Wubong, aka 우봉법무 / 宇峰法無 Ubong Beopmu (1950-2013), born Jacob Perl

Wu Kwang (born 1942 as Richard Shrobe)

* * *

The Collected Works of Korean Buddhism
© 2012 by Compilation Committee of Korean Buddhist Thought, Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism
http://www.360doc.com/content/14/1104/16/11365331_422465342.shtml

http://www.international.ucla.edu/buddhist/resources/article.asp?parentid=127396
http://128.97.165.17/buddhist/print.asp?parentid=127427
http://www1.international.ucla.edu/print.asp?parentid=127427
http://www.acmuller.net/kor-bud/collected_works.html
Download Zip File Containing 13 Full Volume PDF's

Korean Version of Collected Works
http://128.97.165.17/buddhist/article.asp?parentid=127739

Table of Contents

Preface to the English Edition of The Collected Works of Korean Buddhism

1.
VOLUME 1: 元曉 WONHYO: SELECTED WORKS

2.
VOLUME 2: 知訥 CHINUL SELECTED WORKS

3.
VOLUME 3: 休靜 HYUJEONG: SELECTED WORKS

4.
VOLUME 4: 華嚴 HWAŎM I: THE MAINSTREAM TRADITION

5.
VOLUME 5: 華嚴 HWAŎM II: SELECTED WORKS

6.
VOLUME 6: 諸敎學 DOCTRINAL TREATISES: SELECTED WORKS

7.
VOLUME 7-1: 公案集 GONGAN COLLECTIONS I

8.
VOLUME 7-2: 公案集 GONGAN COLLECTIONS II

9.
VOLUME 8: 禪語錄 SEON DIALOGUES

10.
VOLUME 9: 詩選集 SEON POEMS: SELECTED WORKS

11.
VOLUME 10: 文化 KOREAN BUDDHIST CULTURE: ACCOUNTS OF A PILGRIMAGE, MONUMENTS, AND EMINENT MONKS

12.
VOLUME 11: 梵網經古迹記 EXPOSITION OF THE SUTRA OF BRAHMĀ’S NET

13.
VOLUME 12: 韓國高僧碑文 ANTHOLOGY OF STELE INSCRIPTIONS OF EMINENT KOREAN BUDDHIST MONKS

 

1. VOLUME 1: 元曉 WONHYO: SELECTED WORKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/01_Wonhyo_web-sz-ujs.pdf

Edited by A. Charles Muller

Translated by A. Charles Muller, Jin Y. Park, Sem Vermeersch

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PREFACES

1. Preface to the Commentary on the Jin Translation of the Flower Ornament Sūtra (Hwaeomgyeong so seo) 晉譯花嚴經疏序

2. Preface to the Commentary on the Sūtra of the Primary Activities of Bodhisattvas (Bon-eop gyeong so seo) 本業經疏序

3. Preface to the Commentary on the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra (Hae simmil gyeong so seo) 解深密經疏序

4. Preface to the Exposition of the Sūtra on the Adamantine Absorption (Geumgang sammae gyeong non) 金剛三昧經論

5. Preface to the Doctrinal Essentials of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra (Yeolban jong-yo seo) 涅槃宗要序

III. DOCTRINAL ESSENTIALS

1. Doctrinal Essentials of the Lotus Sūtra (Beophwa jong-yo) 法華宗要

2. Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life (Muryangsugyeong jong-yo) 無量壽經宗要

IV. PROLEGOMENA

1. Prolegomenon to the Commentary on the Amitâbha Sūtra Spoken by the Buddha (Bulseol Amitagyeong so) 佛說阿彌陀經疏

2. Prolegomenon to the Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra on Maitreya’s Ascension (Mireuk sangsaeng gyeong jong-yo) 彌勒上生經宗要

V. OTHER SHORTER WORKS

1. Essentials of Observing and Transgressing the Code of Bodhisattva Precepts (Bosal gyebon jibeom yogi) 菩薩戒本持犯要記

2. Awaken Your Mind and Practice (Balsim suhaeng jang) 發心修行章

3. The Great Vehicle Repentance for Indulgence in the Six Faculties (Daeseung yukjeong chamhoe) 大乘六情懺悔

VI. THE BIOGRAPHIES OF THE MONK WONHYO

1. Wonhyo the Unbridled 元曉不羈

2. Biography of Wonhyo, of the Hwangnyong Monastery in the Country of Silla, [vassal to] Tang [including] Daean 唐新羅國黃龍寺元曉傳大安

3. Biography of Uisang from the country of Silla, [vassal to] Tang 唐新羅國義湘傳

4. Biography of State Preceptor Wonhyo 元曉國師傳

 

2. VOLUME 2: 知訥 CHINUL SELECTED WORKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/02_Chinul_web-y0-bnm.pdf

Edited and Translated by Robert E. Buswell, Jr.

I. INTRODUCTION: CHINUL’S LIFE, THOUGHT, AND WRITINGS

Chinul’s Life

Chinul’s Thought

Chinul’s Writings: Synopses

II. CHINUL’S WORKS: SELECTED TRANSLATIONS

Encouragement to Practice: The Compact of the Samādhi and Prajnā Society (Kwŏnsu Chŏnghye kyŏlsa mun 勸修定慧結社文) Admonitions to Neophytes

(Kye ch’osim hagin mun 誡初心學人文) Moguja’s Secrets on Cultivating the Mind

(Moguja Susim kyŏl 牧牛子修心訣) Treatise on the Complete and Sudden Attainment of Buddhahood (Wŏndon sŏngbullon 圓頓成佛論)

Treatise on Resolving Doubts about Observing the Keyword (Kanhwa kyŏrŭiron 看話決疑論)

Preface and Conclusion from Condensation of the Exposition of the Avataṃsakasūtra (Hwaŏm non chŏryo 華嚴論節要)

Funerary Inscription and Eulogy for the State Preceptor Puril Pojo of the Society for Cultivating Sŏn on Chogye Mountain (Chogyesan Susŏnsa Puril Pojo kuksa pimyŏng 曹溪山禪社佛日普照國師碑銘)

 

3. VOLUME 3: 休靜 HYUJEONG: SELECTED WORKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/03_Hyujeong_web-dc-n2w.pdf

Edited and Translated by John Jorgensen

I. INTRODUCTION

II. CHEONGHEO-DANG HAENGJANG (ACCOUNT OF CONDUCT OF CHEONGHEO-DANG)

III. SEONGA GWIGAM

IV. SIMBEOP YOCHO (ABSTRACTS OF THE ESSENTIALS OF THE MIND DHARMA)

1. Preface

2. Faults of Students of Doctrine

3. Faults of Students of Seon

4. Faults of Students of the Three Vehicles

5. The Seon Gate of Investigation

6. The Gate of Mindfulness of Buddha

7. Three Kinds of Contemplation of Purity

8. Seon Hymns

9. Hymns on Mindfulness

10. The Fifty-Five Stations of the Doctrinal Schools

11. Tune of the Separate Transmission outside of the Doctrine

12. The Initial Making Up of the Mind to Cultivate the Bodhisattva Practice

13. The Cultivation of Practice of the Mahāyāna Persons

14. The Greatest Faults in Seon: the Two Characters Knowing and Understanding

15. Condition Where Those of Superior Capacity and Great Wisdom are Self-Enlightened

16. Every Person Originally at Peace

17. Where the Said Person Approves of Their Own Enlightenment

18. The Three Sentences Preached by the Buddha

19. No Demons of Illness in the Dharmas Originally

20. No Views in the Original Dharma

21. Where There Is No Transmission from Master to Pupil

22. A Lack of Insight and Biased Views

23. Record of Printing

24. Appendix

V. SEON-GYOSEOK (EXPLANATION OF SEON AND DOCTRINE)

1. Preface

2. Explanation of Seon and Doctrine

3. Separate Transmission outside of the Doctrine

4. Differences between the Rounded Teaching and the Sudden Teaching

5. Differences between the Laṅkâvatāra sūtra and Prajñāpāramitā sūtra

6. Dialogues of Those of Eminent Virtue

7. Dialogues with Students of Doctrine

8. Epilogue

VI. SEON-GYOGYEOL (RESOLUTIONS OF [THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN] SEON AND DOCTRINE)

VII. THE CHEONGHEO COLLECTION

1. The Mental Essentials of the Patriarchal Teachers, Presented to Great Master Wonjun

2. Preface to Seonga gwigam

3. The Gate of Mindfulness of Buddha, Presented to Retired Scholar Baek

4. The Gate of Investigation Seon, Presented to Elder Jing

5. Song on One’s Own Delight

6. Letter Sent to Governor Ro of Wansan

7. Second Letter of Reply to Governor Ro of Wansan

8. Memorial for My Parents

9. Letter of Reply to a Master of Doctrine

10. Letter to Man of the Way Byeokcheon

11. Letter Sent to Seon Student Dongho

12. Letter Sent to Senior Ilhak of Mt. Odae

13. Letter in Reply to Education Official Bak

14. Letter of Reply to Graduate Bak

 

4. VOLUME 4: 華嚴 HWAŎM I: THE MAINSTREAM TRADITION
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/04_Hwaom_I_web-re-sld.pdf

Edited by Richard D. McBride II

Translated by Richard D. McBride II, Sem Vermeersch

I. INTRODUCTION: A BRIEF HISTORY OF ŬISANG’S SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE AND ITS VARIORUMS

II. SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE OF THE AVATAṂSAKA

III. VARIORUM ON THE "GĀTHĀ ON THE DHARMA NATURE"

1. Comprehensive Record on the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Realm (Pŏpkye to ki ch’ongsurok 法界圖記叢髓錄): Selections

2. Perfectly Comprehensive Record of the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Realm as the One Vehicle (Ilsung pŏpkye to wŏnt’ong ki 一乘法界圖圓通記): Selections

3. Commentary on the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Ream of the Great Avataṃsaka; with Introduction (Tae Hwaŏm pŏpkye to chu (pyŏngsŏ) 大華嚴法界圖注 [幷序])

IV. SELECTIONS FROM THE PERFECTLY COMPREHENSIVE RECORD OF THE SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE, ROLL ONE

V. ACCOUNTS OF CONDUCT

Ŭisang’s Account of Conduct

1. Ŭisang Transmits the Teachings (義湘傳敎)

2. History of the Transmission of Śarīra (前後所將舍利)

3. The Two Great Saints of Naksan, Kwanŭm and Chŏngch’wi; [The Story of] Chosin

(洛山二大聖觀音正趣調信)

4. Biography of Ŭisang from the Tang dominion of Silla (唐新羅國義湘傳)

Kyunyŏ’s Account of Conduct

1. Biography of Kyunyŏ, Double Exalted Great Master of Complete Penetration, Senior Monk 3 of the Great Hwaŏm [Order]; with Introduction (大華嚴首坐圓通兩重大師均如傳并序)

 

5. VOLUME 5: 華嚴 HWAŎM II: SELECTED WORKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/05_Hwaom_II_web-e0-ccs.pdf

Edited and Translated by Richard D. McBride II

I. THE HISTORY OF HWAŎM THOUGHT IN SILLA: AN INTRODUCTION

II. TREATISE ON THE OCEAN SEAL SAMĀDHI: Haein Sammae Ron 海印三昧論 By Myŏnghyo 明皛

III. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF THE TEXTUAL MEANING OF THE AVATAMSAKA-SŪTRA (Hwaŏm-Gyŏng Munŭi Yogyŏl Mundap 華嚴經文義要決問答) By P’yowon 表員

IV. COLLECTED WORKS OF STATE PRECEPTOR TAEGAK Taegak kuksa munjip (sŏn) 大覺國師文集 (選) By Uichŏn 義天

V. BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE VOW MADE AT WHITE FLOWER ENLIGHTENMENT SITE (Paekhwa Toryang Parwŏnmun Yakhae 白花道場發願文略解) By Ch’ewŏn 體元

 

6. VOLUME 6: 諸敎學 DOCTRINAL TREATISES: SELECTED WORKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/06_Doctrinal_Treatises_web-rj-se1.pdf

Edited by A. Charles Muller

Translated by A. Charles Muller, Richard D. McBride II

I. INTRODUCTION: YOGACĀRA STUDIES IN SILLA

1. The Establishment of Silla Buddhist Thought

2. Consciousness-only Thought (East Asian Yogacāra)

II. COMMENTARY ON THE SAṂDHINIRMOCANA-SŪTRA (SELECTIONS) HAESIMMILGYEONG SO 解深密經疏) BY WONCHEUK 圓測

III. STUDY NOTES ON THE CHENG WEISHI LUN (SELECTIONS) (SEONG YUSINGNON HAKGI 成唯識論學記) BY DAEHYEON 大賢

IV. SELECTIONS FROM THE COMMENTARY ON THE THREE MAITREYA SŪTRAS (SAM MIREUKGYEONG SO 三彌勒經疏 [選]) BY GYEONGHEUNG 憬興

1. Concise Commentary on the Sūtra on Maitreya’s Rebirth Above (Mireuk sangsaeng gyeong yogan-gi)

2. Commentary on the Sūtra on Maitreya’s Rebirth Below (Mireuk hasaenggyeong so)

3. Commentary on the Sūtra on Maitreya’s Attainment of Buddhahood (Mireuk seongbulgyeong so)

V. OUTLINE OF THE TIANTAI FOURFOLD TEACHINGS (CHEONTAE SAGYO UI 天台四敎儀) BY CHEGWAN 諦觀

VI. WATCH YOURSELF! (JAGYEONGMUN 自警文) BY YAUN 野雲

VII. THE EXPOSITION OF THE CORRECT (HYEONJEONG NON 顯正論) BY GIHWA 己和

 

7. VOLUME 7-1: 公案集 GONGAN COLLECTIONS I
http://www.international.ucla.edu/media/files/07-1_Gongan_I_web-py-zjw.pdf

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SEONMUN YEOMSONG SEOLHWA

1. The Greatly Enlightened, World Honored One, Śākyamuni Buddha 大覺世尊釋迦文佛 <Case 1>

3. The World Honored One Picks Up a Flower 世尊拈花 <Case 5>

4. The World Honored One and the Confessional 世尊自恣 <Case 33>

5. The Nirvana Sūtra and the Drum Lathered with Poison 涅槃塗毒 <Case 44>

6. Manjuśrī Gathers Medicine 文殊採藥 <Case 65>

7. Bhīsmottara Gathers Medicine 目執手 <Case 74>

8. Bodhidharma and the Noble Truth 達磨聖諦 <Case 98>

9. The Fourth Patriarch’s Liberation Teaching 四祖解脱 <Case 108>

10. The Wind and the Banner 風幡 <Case 110>

11. Daoming’s Original Face 道明本來面目 <Case 118>

12. Mazu’s Single Gulp 馬祖一口 <Case 161>

13. Mazu’s Circle Image 馬祖圓相 <Case 165>

14. Baizhang’s Wild Duck 百丈野鴨 <Case 177>

15. Baizhang Revisits Mazu for a Consultation 百丈再參 <Case 181>

16. Baizhang’s Wild Fox 百丈野狐 <Case 184>

17. Nanquan Sells His Body 南泉賣身 <Case 204>

18. Nanquan Cuts the Cat in Two 南泉斬猫 <Case 207>

19. Panshan’s Moon-Mind 盤山心月 <Case 250>

20. Guizong Raises His Fist 歸宗起拳 <Case 261>

21. Fenzhou’s Deluded Thoughts 汾州妄想 <Case 284>

22. Fubei’s "I Have Nothing Left to Say" 浮盃無剩語 <Case 294>

23. Pang Yun’s Ten Directions 龐蘊十方 <Case 312>

24. The Layman and Washing Vegetables 居士洗菜 <Case 313>

25. Danxia Sets the Buddha Ablaze 丹霞燒佛 <Case 321>

26. Yaoshan’s Three Vehicles 藥山三乘 <Case 324>

27. Tianhuang’s "I Feel Great!" 天皇快活 <Case 351>

28. Weishan’s No Mind 山無心 <Case 359>

29. Huanzhong Knows Illness 寰中識病 <Case 399>

30. Zhaozhou’s "Go Have Some Tea" 趙州喫茶 <Case 411>

31. Zhaozhou’s Dog 趙州狗子 <Case 417>

32. Zhaozhou’s "Go Wash Your Bowl!" 趙州洗鉢 <Case 429>

33. Zhaozhou’s Two Dragons 趙州二龍 <Case 471>

34. Changsha’s Hundred-Foot Pole 長沙百尺 <Case 488>

35. Changsha’s Impediment 長沙礙處 <Case 494>

36. Ganzhi’s "Mind" Character 甘贄心字 <Case 507>

37. Mimo’s Pitchfork 秘魔杈却 <Case 508>

38. Decheng’s Thousand-Foot Fishing Line 德誠千尺 <Case 533>

39. Moshan’s "Neither Man Nor Woman" 末山男女 <Case 553>

40. Shishuang’s "Patriarch’s Intent Still in the Teachings" 石霜敎中 <Case 559>

41. Xiangyan’s "Last Year" 香嚴去年 <Case 598>

42. Xiangyan’s "Let’s Say There is a Person … " 香嚴如人 <Case 600>

43. Linji’s Buddha Dharma 臨濟佛法 <Case 607>

44. Linji’s Shout 臨濟便喝 <Case 633>

45. Muzhou’s "Narrow-Minded Fellow" 睦州擔板 <Case 639>

46. Muzhou’s Great Matter 睦州大事 <Case 655>

47. Deshan’s Blow 德山便棒 <Case 672>

48. Deshan’s "Ouch, Ouch!" 德山啊耶 <Case 677>

49. Dongshan’s Three Bodies 洞山三身 <Case 685>

50. Dongshan’s Experience 洞山體得 <Case 688>

 

8. VOLUME 7-2: 公案集 GONGAN COLLECTIONS II
http://www.international.ucla.edu/media/files/07-2_Gongan_II_web-br-00e.pdf

Edited and Translated by John Jorgensen

I. SEONMUN YEOMSONG SEOLHWA

51. Dongshan’s "Fire" 洞山救火 <Case 704 >

52. Dongshan’s "Not Ill." 洞山不病 <Case 707>

53. Touzi’s "Great Death" 投子大死 <Case 726>

54. Fuben did a Dance 覆盆作舞 <Case 776>

55. Xuefeng’s "Lineage Vehicle." 雪峰宗乘 <Case 780 >

56. Xuefeng’s "Deliverance" 雪峯解脫 <Case 782>

57. Xuefeng Overturned the Boat 雪峯覆船 <Case 792>

58. Xuefeng’s "Fori" 雪峯佛日 <Case 802>

59. Yunju’s Source of the Rain 雲居雨從 <Case 857>

60. Yunju’s "Monks’ Residence" 雲居僧家 <Case 859 >

61. Yunju’s "Take Trousers" 雲居持袴 <Case 864>

62. Caoshan’s "Change" 曺山變異 <Case 883>

63. Caoshan and Quanzhou 曺山泉州 <Case 890>

64. Caoshan’s "Rabbit Horns" 曹山兎角 <Case 892>

65. Baishui’s "Sound Precedes" 白水聲前 <Case 911>

66. Nanta’s "Songthrush" 南塔百舌 <Case 926>

67. Daguang’s "Bodhidharma" 大光達磨 <Case 931>

68. Luopu’s "Return Home" 洛浦歸鄕 <Case 949>

69. Xuansha’s "Owner" 玄沙主人 <Case 988>

70. Xuansha’s Personal Transmission 玄沙親傳 <Case 1000>

71. Yunmen’s "East Mountain" 雲門東山 <Case 1034>

72. Yunmen’s "One Word" 雲門一言 <Case 1069>

73. Yunmen’s "Worn Out Sandals" 雲門踏破 <Case 1074>

74. Yunmen’s "Marvelous Joy" 雲門妙喜 <Case 1076>

75. Yunmen’s "Shit Scraper" 雲門屎橛 <Case 1078>

76. Changqing’s "Marvelous Peak" 長慶妙峯 <Case 1109>

77. Jingqing’s Tap and Peck 鏡淸啄 <Case 1122>

78. Jingqing’s Bell 鏡淸鐘子 <Case 1125>

79. Daobi’s "GoldEn Fowl" 道丕金鷄 <Case 1173>

80. Tong’an’s "Head for Over There" 同安向去 <Case 1175>

81. Tong’an and Depending on the Sutras 同安依經 <Case 1176>

82. Luoshan’s "Stone Ox" 羅山石牛 <Case 1202>

83. Baling’s "The Chicken is Cold." 巴陵鷄寒 <Case 1221>

84. Baling’s "Falls into a Well." 巴陵落井 <Case 1222>

85. Mingzhao’s "Wind" 明招風頭 <Case 1272>

86. Zhimen’s "Barefoot" 智門赤脚 <Case 1283>

87. Fayan Pointed at a Screen 法眼指廉 <Case 1294>

88. Fayan’s "Lamplighter Boy" 法眼丙丁 <Case 1299>

89. Hongjin’s "Clear Knowing" 洪進明知 <Case 1314>

90. Shoushan’s Bamboo Stick 首山竹篦 <Case 1331>

91. Xuedou’s "You People" 雪竇諸人 <Case 1355>

92. Daochang’s Three Parting Words 道常三訣 <Case 1365>

93. Beichan’s Year’s End 北禪歲盡 <Case 1368>

94. Huijue’s "Zhezhong" 慧覺浙中 <Case 1378>

95. Langye’s "Pristine" 瑯琊淸淨 <Case 1379 >

96. Baiyun’s "Other People" 白雲他人 <Case 1412>

97. Wuzu’s "Five Contrary Crimes" 五祖五逆 <Case 1415>

98. Wuzu’s Pronunciation Gloss 五祖切脚 <Case 1418>

99. Dashi’s "Empty Hand" 大士空手 <Case 1429>

100. The Old Woman Burns Down the Hermitage 婆子燒菴 <Case 1463>

 

9. VOLUME 8: 禪語錄 SEON DIALOGUES
http://www.international.ucla.edu/media/files/08_Seon-Dialogues_web-nf-uys.pdf

Edited and Translated by John Jorgensen

I. INTRODUCTION

1. Historical Background

2. Importation of Kanhua Chan into Goryeo Korea

3. Some Terms of Kanhua Ch’an

4. Language of the yulu

5. Note by the English Translator

II. INTRODUCTION TO THE KOREAN TRANSLATION

1. General Considerations

The Seon Recorded Sayings and the Sutras

Methodological Elements in the Chan yulu

2. The Seon Dharma of the Korean Seon Recorded Sayings

A. Recorded Sayings of Jin-gak

B. Recorded Sayings of Baeg-un

C. Recorded Sayings of Taego

D. The Recorded Sayings of Naong

3. Bibliographical Data

A. Recorded Sayings of Jin-gak

B. Recorded Sayings of Baeg-un

C. Recorded Sayings of Taego

D. Recorded Sayings of Naong

III. THE RECORDED SAYINGS OF NATIONAL TEACHER JIN-GAK

Formal Sermons

Formal Sermon 1

Formal Sermon 2

Formal Sermon 3

Formal Sermon 4

Formal Sermon 5

Formal Sermon 6

Formal Sermon 7

Formal Sermon 8

Formal Sermon 9

Formal Sermon 10

Formal Sermon 11

Formal Sermon 12

Formal Sermon 13

Formal Sermon 14

Formal Sermon 15

Formal Sermon 16

Formal Sermon 17

Formal Sermon 18

Formal Sermon 19

Formal Sermon 20

Formal Sermon 21

Formal Sermon 22

Formal Sermon 23

Formal Sermon 24

Formal Sermon 25

Formal Sermon 26

Formal Sermon 27

Formal Sermon 28

Formal Sermon 29

Formal Sermon 30

Formal Sermon 31

Formal Sermon 32

Formal Sermon 33

Formal Sermon 34

Formal Sermon 35

Formal Sermon 36

Formal Sermon 37

Formal Sermon 38

Formal Sermon 39

Formal Sermon 40

Formal Sermon 41

Formal Sermon 42

Formal Sermon 43

Formal Sermon 44

Formal Sermon 45

Formal Sermon 46

Formal Sermon 47

Formal Sermon 48

Formal Sermon 49

Formal Sermon 50

Formal Sermon 51

Formal Sermon 52

Formal Sermon 53

Formal Sermon 54

Formal Sermon 55

Formal Sermon 56

Formal Sermon 57

Formal Sermon 58

Formal Sermon 59

2. Informal Sermons

Informal Sermon 1

Informal Sermon 2

Informal Sermon 3

Informal Sermon 4

Informal Sermon 5

Informal Sermon 6

Informal Sermon 7

Informal sermon 8

3. Dharma Talks

A. Instructions to Seon Person Gwang-am

B. Instructions to Eminence Jang

C. Instructions to Layman Wi Jeonggyu

D. Instruction to His Eminence Jiju

E. Instructions to Vice-Minister Ki

F. The (Dharma) Talk Requested by His Eminence Damjun

G. The (Dharma) Talk Sought by Vice-Minister Son

4. Letters of Reply

Reply to Minister Choe

Another reply

Reply to Minister No

Reply to the Consort of the Lord JinGang, the Person of the Way (Surnamed) Wang: With a Letter of Questions Appended

Reply

IV. RECORDED SAYINGS OF BAEG-UN

1. Trivial Talks on appointment as abbot at Sin-gwang Monastery

A. At the Outer Mountain (Triple) Gate

B. At the Buddha Hall

C. At the Abbot’s Quarters

D. Trivial Talks on Appointment as Abbot of Heungseong Monastery 興聖寺入院小說

2. Formal Sermons

Formal Sermon 1

Formal Sermon 2

Formal Sermon 3

Formal Sermon 4

Formal Sermon 5

Formal Sermon 6

Formal Sermon 7

Formal Sermon 8

Formal Sermon 9

Formal Sermon 10

Formal Sermon 11

Formal Sermon 12

3. Instructions to the Assembly

Instruction 1

Instruction 2

Instruction 3

Instruction 4

Instruction 5

Instruction 6

Instruction 7

Instruction 8

Instruction 9

Instruction 10

4. Patriarchal Teacher Chan

5. Discussion of the Commonality of Chan and Doctrine

6. An Explanation of the Three Verses of Yunmen

7. An Explanation of the Three Verses of Dayang

8. An Explanation of the Three Verses and Three Turning Words of Reverend Naong

A. The Three Verses

B. The Three Turning Words

9. On Receiving a Letter from the Elder Reverend Shiwu

10. The Song of No-mind

11. Letter to Reverend Taego

12. A Letter of Instruction to the Seon Person Seon

13. Letter Sent to Man of Seon Yoseon

14. A Letter Instructing Society Leader Hoesim

15. A Letter Sent to the Elder Cheonho, Superior of the Buddha Hall in the Court

16. A Letter of Instruction to Minister Duke Yi

17. Gāthā on Impending Death

V. RECORDED SAYINGS OF TAEGO

1. Dharma Questionings on Being Appointed Abbot

A. Appointment as Abbot at Bongeun Seon Monastery

B. A Formal Sermon to Suppress Warfare held in the Royal Palace

C. Reappointed as Abbot of Jungheung Seon Monastery on Mt. Samgak

D. Appointment as Abbot at Bong-am Seon Monastery on Mt. Huiyang

E. Appointment as abbot of Borim Seon Monastery on Mt. Gaji

F. Appointed Abbot of Yeongweon Seon Monastery on Mt. Jassi

2. Formal Sermon

3. Instructions to the Assembly

4. Dharma Talks

A. Reply to Layman Bangsan

B. Instructions to Layman Muje

C. Instructions to Metropolitan Graduate Choe

D. Instructions to Layman Saje

E. Instructions to Administrator of the Hall Yeom Heungbang

F. Instructions to Layman Nag-am on the Essentials of Mindfulness of the Buddha

G. Instructions to Layman Baek Chungsin

H. Instructions to Layman Muneung (Minister Duke Bak Seongnyang)

I. Instructions to Seon Person Dang

J. Instructions to Seon Person Jin

K. Instructions for Seon Person Eui

L. In Reply to Senior Elder Damdang Seuk

M. Instructions to Seon Person Mun

N. Instructions for Seon Person So

O. Instruction to Seon Person Ga

P. Instructions to Seon Person Sang

Q. Instructions to the Wife of Lord Ansan, Myodang

R. Instructions to Seon Person Jiseong of Japan

S. Instructions to Seon Person Eui

T. A Caution to the Attendants’ Residence

5. Songs, Chants and Inscriptions

A. Song of the Taego Hermitage

B. Inscription on Investigating Chan

VI. RECORDED SAYINGS OF NAONG

1. The New Abbot’s Initial Sermon at Guangji Chan Monastery

2. (First) Entry to the Cloister of Shenguang Monastery (by the new abbot)

3. Formal Sermon to Commence the Retreat

4. Formal Sermon for the Dissolution of the Retreat

5. Universal Sermon on Entering the Court Chapel

6. Informal Sermon

7. Informal Sermon for New Year’s Eve

8. Universal Sermon

9. Formal Lecture for the Lustration of the Buddha

10. Formal Sermon at the Commencement of a Retreat 2

11. Prayer for the Opening of the Eyes of the Bodhidharma (Statue)

12. The Dawn of the Birthday of Reverend Zhikong

13. The Morning of (Zhikong’s) Entry into Nirvana

14. Instructions to the Assembly

15. Three Sentences on Entering the Gate

16. The Three Turning Words

17. The Words (of Instruction) Handed Down on the Seventeenth Day

18. Ten Paragraphs on Study (of hwadu)

19. The Universal Sermon on the Day of the Bestowal of Veneration by the Royal Teacher on the Twenty-sixth Day of the Eighth Month of the sinhae (Year)

20. Instructions to Head Monk Ilju

21. Instructions for Librarian Hong

22. Instructions for the Seon monk Gakseong

23. Instructions for Minister of State Mok In’gil

24. Instructions to Layman Deuktong

25. Reply to Minister of State Yi Jehyeon

26. Another Reply

27. Instructions to the Administrator of Reports of Matters, Yeom Heungbang

28. The Raising of the Bones of Reverend Zhikong

29. Interment in the Stupa

30. Instructions to Seon Man Gak’o

31. The Lighting (of the Funerary Pyre) for Senior Chiyeo

32. Lighting (the Pyre) for Two Monks

33. (Sermon) for the Burial of the Bones of Great Seon Master Sinbaek

34. Lighting the Pyre for Senior Jibo

35. Instructions to Sungnyeong Ongju, Myoseon

36. Letter in Reply to a Married Younger Sister

37. Substitute Words

38. Investigation and Judgment

39. Evaluations

40. A Formal, Universal Sermon at the Commencement of a Retreat

41. Formal Sermon on the Day of the Dissolution (of a Retreat)

 

10. VOLUME 9: 詩選集 SEON POEMS: SELECTED WORKS
http://www.international.ucla.edu/media/files/09_Seon-Poems_web-ac-l3s.pdf

Edited by Roderick Whitfield

Translated by Roderick Whitfield, Young-Eui Park

INTRODUCTION

A. Background and Development of Korean Buddhist Poetry

B. Characteristics of Korean Buddhist Poetry

C. Aspects of the Development of Korean Buddhist Poetry

D. Buddhist Literary Works in Korea

I. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF NATIONAL PRECEPTOR DAEGAK (1055–1101) 大覺國師文集

II. COLLECTED POEMS OF MUUIJA (1178–1234) 無衣子詩集

III. HOSANROK: COLLECTED WRITINGS OF NATIONAL PRECEPTOR JINJEONG (13TH CENTURY), FOURTH PATRIARCH OF BAENGNYEONGSA ON MT. MANDEOK 萬德山白蓮社第四代眞靜國師湖山錄

IV. SONGS OF NATIONAL PRECEPTOR WEONGAM (1205–1248) 圓鑑國師歌頌

V. COLLECTED SAYINGS OF PRECEPTOR BAEGUN (1299–1375) 白雲和尙語

VI. DHARMA RECORDS OF PRECEPTOR TAEGO (BO’U, 1301–1382) 太古和尙語錄

VII. SONGS OF PRECEPTOR NAONG (1320–1376) 懶翁和尙歌頌

VIII. DHARMA RECORDS OF PRECEPTOR HAMHEODANG DEUKTONG (1376–1433) 涵虛堂得通和尙語錄

IX. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF HEOEUNGDANG (1515–1565) 虛應堂集

X. POEMS OF CHEONGHEODANG (HYUJEONG, 1520–1604) 淸虛堂集

XI. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF SEON MASTER JEONGGWAN (1533–1608) 靜觀集

XII. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF THE GREAT MASTER BUHYUDANG (1543–1615) 浮休堂大師集

XIII. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF GREAT MASTER SAMYEONGDANG (1544–1610) 四溟堂大師集

XIV. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF MASTER CHEONGMAE (1548–1623)靑梅集

XV. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF SOYODANG (1562–1649) 逍遙堂集

XVI. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF PYEONYANGDANG (1581–1644) 鞭羊堂集

XVII. COLLECTED POEMS OF GREAT MASTER CHWIMI (1590–1668) 翠微大師詩集

XVIII. COLLECTED POEMS OF HEOBAEK DANG (1593–1661) 虛白堂詩集

XIX. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF BAEKGOK (?–1680) 白谷集

XX. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF CHIMGOING (1616–1684) 枕肱集

XXI. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF WOLBONG (1624–?) 月峯集

XXII. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF BAEKAM (1631–1700) 栢庵集

XXIII. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF THE GREAT MASTER WOLJEO DANG (1638–1715) 月渚堂大師集

XXIV. MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION OF SEOLAM (YI HYUN, 1786–1866) 雪巖亂藁

XXV. COLLECTED POEMS OF CHOUI (YI HYUN, 1786–1866) 艸衣詩藁

XXVI. COLLECTED WRITINGS OF GYEONGHEO (1849–1912) 鏡虛集

 

11. VOLUME 10: 文化 KOREAN BUDDHIST CULTURE: ACCOUNTS OF A PILGRIMAGE, MONUMENTS, AND EMINENT MONKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/10_Culture_web-is-toy.pdf

Edited by Roderick Whitfield

Translated by Michael Finch, Sem Vermeersch, Matthew Wegehaupt

I. INTRODUCTION

Open Road to the World--Memoirs of a Pilgrimage to the Five Indian Kingdoms -

1. The Dunhuang Manuscripts and the Discovery of the Memoirs of a Pilgrimage to the Five Indian Kingdoms

2. The Career of Esteemed Esoteric Master Hyecho

3. The Structure of the Memoirs and the Course of Hyecho’s Journey

4. The Contents and Unique Characteristics of the Memoirs

The Cultural-Historical Significance of the <title level="m">Samguk yusa</title> (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms)

1. Iryeon’s Perception of History

2. The Structure of <title level="m">Samguk yusa</title>

3. The Historiographical Significance of the <title level="m">Samguk yusa</title>

II. MEMOIRS OF A PILGRIMAGE TO THE FIVE INDIAN KINGDOMS

1. [Śrāvastī]

2. Kuśinagara

3. Vārāṇasī

4. Central India

5. South India

6. West India

7. Jālandhara

8. Suvarnagotra

9. Takshar

10. Sindh-Gujarāt

11. Kashmir

12. Greater Bolor, Yangtong, Suoboci

13. Tibet

14. Lesser Bolor

15. Gandhāra

16. Uddhayāna

17. Kuwi

18. Lampāka

19. Kāpiśī

20. Zābulistān

21. Bāmiyān

22. Tokhara

23. Persia

24. Arabia

25. Byzantine Empire

26. Hu Nations

27. Ferghāna

28. Khuttal

29. Turks

30. Wakhān

31. Shighnān

32. Congling Garrison

33. Kashgar

34. Kucha

35. Khotan

36. Karashahr

III. SAMGUK YUSA (STŪPAS AND IMAGES)

4-1. The Rock on which Kāśyapa Buddha Sat in Meditation 迦葉弗宴坐石

4-2. King Aśoka’s Pagoda at Liaodong Fortress 遼東城育王塔

4-3. The Pasa Stone Pagoda at Geumgwan Fortress 金官城婆娑石塔

4-4. The Goguryeo Monastery Yeongtapsa 高麗靈塔寺

4-5. The Sixteen-foot Buddha Statue at Hwangnyongsa 皇龍寺丈六

4-6. The Nine-Story Pagoda at Hwangnyongsa 皇龍寺九層塔

4-7. The Hwangnyongsa Bell, Bunhwangsa’s Bhaiṣajyaguru Buddha Statue and the Bongdeoksa Bell 皇龍寺鐘 芬皇寺藥師 奉德寺鍾

4-8. The Sixteen-foot Statue at Yeongmyosa 靈妙寺丈六

4-9. Mt. Sabul (Four Buddhas Mountain), Mt. Gulbul (Unearthing Buddha Mountain), and Mt. Manbul (Ten Thousand Buddhas Mountain) 四佛山 萬佛山 掘佛山

4-10. The Stone Maitreya Buddha Image at Saenguisa 生義寺石彌勒

4-11. The Mural of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva at Heungnyunsa 興輪寺壁畫普賢

4-12-1. Three Places with Images of Avalokitêśvara: I. Jungsaengsa 三所觀音 I. 衆生寺

4-12-2. Three Places with Images of Avalokitêśvara: II. Baengnyulsa 三所觀音 II. 栢栗寺

4-12-3. Three Places with Images of Avalokitêśvara: III. Minjangsa 三所觀音 III. 敏藏寺

4-13. A Chronological Account of the Transmission of Buddhist Relics 前後所將舍利

4-14. Maitreya Daoist Flower Misi-rang and the Monk Jinja 彌勒仙花 未尸郞 眞慈師

4-15. The Two Saints of Mt. Nambaegwol, Nohil Budeuk and Daldal Bakbak 南白月二聖 努夫得 怛怛朴朴

4–16. The Thousand-Handed Avalokitêśvara at Bunhwangsa causes a Blind Child to Regain its Sight 芬皇寺千手大悲 盲兒得眼

4-17. Josin and the Two Great Saints of Naksansa, the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara and Jeongchwi 洛山二大聖 觀音 正趣 調信

4-18. The Buddha’s Shadow on Mt. Eo 魚山佛影

4-19. The Fifty Thousand Incarnated Buddhas of Mt. Odae 臺山五萬眞身

4-20. The Five Classes of Saintly Hosts of Woljeongsa on Mt. Odae 臺山月精寺五類聖衆

4-21. Mt. Namwol (also called Gamsan Monastery) 南月山 (亦名 甘山寺)

4-22. Cheollyongsa 天龍寺

4-23. The Amitābha Buddha Hall at Mujangsa 鍪藏寺彌陁殿

4-24. Baegeomsa’s Stone Stūpa and Relics 伯嚴寺石塔舍利

4-25. Yeongchwisa 靈鷲寺

4-26. Yudeoksa 有德寺

4-27. The Inscription on the Stone Stūpa at Munsusa (Manjuśrī Monastery) on Mt. Odae 五臺山文殊寺石塔記

IV. SAMGUK YUSA (EXEGETES)

5-1. Wongwang Studies in the West 圓光西學

5-2. Boyang and the Pear Tree 寶壤梨木

5-3. Yangji Sets his Staff to Work 良志使錫

5-4. The Masters who Sought Refuge in India 歸竺諸師

5-5. Hyesuk and Hyegong Identify with the Realm of the Senses 二惠同塵

5-6. Jajang Establishes the Vinaya 慈藏定律

5-7. Wonhyo the Unbridled 元曉不羈

5-8. Uisang Transmits the Teachings 義湘傳敎

5-9. Snake Boy Does not Speak 蛇福不言

5-10. Jinpyo Transmits the [Divination] Strips 眞表傳簡

5-11. Seungjeon and the Skulls 勝詮髑髏

5-12. Simji Continues the Work of the Patriarchs 心地繼祖

5-13. The Yogācāra of Daehyeon and the Hwaeom of Beophae 賢瑜伽 海華嚴

 

12. VOLUME 11: 梵網經古迹記 EXPOSITION OF THE SUTRA OF BRAHMĀ’S NET
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/11_Exposition_web-sb-osg.pdf

Edited and Translated by A. Charles Muller

I. INTRODUCTION

1. Foreword

2. Taehyeon’s Life and Works

A. Taehyeon’s Life

B. Taehyeon’s Writings

3. Taehyeon’s Mahāyāna Vinaya Studies

A. Silla Research on the Sutra of Brahmā’s Net

B. Sutras, Vinayas, śāstras, and Commentaries quoted in the Beommanggyeong gojeokgi

C. Characteristics of the Beommanggyeong gojeokgi

D. Influence in Japan

E. Taehyeon’s Interpretive Approaches toward the Sutra of Brahmā’s Net

4. Meeting the Demands for Secular Relevance

A. Taehyeon’s View of the Sutra of Brahmā’s Net and "Filial Piety" 孝 and "Obligation for Kindnesses Received" 恩

B. Other Regulations for Dealing with the World of the Time

5. Vinaya Thought through the Three Pure Sets of Precepts

6. References

II. ROLL ONE

Commentator’s Preface

1. Time and Place

2. Capacity [of the Audience]

3. How it is categorized within the canon

4. Circumstances and Details regarding the Translation

5. Doctrinal Tenets 宗趣

6. The Title 題名

Main Text

III. ROLL TWO

Ten Grounds 十地

1. Ground of the Equality of the Essence 體性平等地

2. Ground of the Skillful Wisdom of the Essence 體性善慧地

3. Ground of the Luminosity of the Essence 體性光明地

4. Ground of the Knowability of the Essence 體性爾焰地

5. Ground of Wisdom-Illumination of the Essence 體性慧照地

6. Ground of the Floral Radiance of the Essence 體性華光地

7. Ground of Completion of the Essential Nature 體性滿足地

8. Ground of the Buddha’s Roar of the Essential Nature 體性佛吼地

9. Ground of the Flower Ornamentation of the Essence 體性華嚴地

10. Ground of Entry into the Buddha Realm of the Essential Nature 體性入佛界地

IV. ROLL THREE

The Grave Precepts

1. Invocation 付囑

A. The Teaching Transmitted to the Transformation-body Buddhas 化佛傳說

B. Repaying of Kindness and Separate Iteration of the Teaching 報恩別化

C. The Exhortation 策發

D. The Bodhisattva Precepts

E. Preface on the Formation of the Precepts 結戒序

2. The Main Sermon 正說分

A. General Outline 總標

3. The Ten Grave Precepts 十重戒

A. Prohibition of Pleasurable Killing 快意殺生戒第一

B. Prohibition of Stealing the Property of Others 劫盜人物戒第二

C. Prohibition of the Heartless Pursuit of Lust 無慈行欲戒第三經

D. Prohibition of Intentional Lying 故心妄語戒第四經

E. Prohibition of the Sale of Alcohol 酤酒生罪戒第五經

F. Prohibition of Speaking of the Faults of Others 談他過失戒第六經

G. Prohibition of Praising Oneself and Disparaging Others 自讚毀他戒第七

H. Prohibition of Stinginess and Abuse of Others 慳生毀辱戒第八

I. Prohibition of Holding Resentments and Not Accepting Apologies 瞋不受謝戒第九

J. Prohibition of Denigration of the Three Treasures 毀謗三寶戒第十

K. Conclusion 結成門

V. ROLL FOUR

The Minor Precepts

1. Preface to the Minor Precepts 輕戒序文

A. Concluding the Former [Grave Precepts] and Initiating the Latter [Minor Precepts] 結前生後

2. Enumeration of the Precepts 次第誦出

A. Division of Ten Precepts 判十戒

B. Division of Ten Precepts 判十戒

C. Division of Ten Precepts 判十戒

D. Division of Nine Precepts 判九戒

E. Division of Nine Precepts 判九戒

3. General Conclusion 總結

A. Dissemination Section 流通分

 

13. VOLUME 12: 韓國高僧碑文 ANTHOLOGY OF STELE INSCRIPTIONS OF EMINENT KOREAN BUDDHIST MONKS
http://international.ucla.edu/media/files/12_Anthology_web-pe-fbc.pdf

Edited by John Jorgensen

Translated by Patrick Uhlmann

INTRODUCTION

I. STELE INSCRIPTION OF POJO CH’EJING 長興 寶林寺 普照禪師 彰聖塔碑文

II. STELE INSCRIPTION OF CHINGAM HYESO 河東 雙谿寺 眞鑒禪師 大空靈塔碑文

III. STELE INSCRIPTION OF NANGHYE MUYŎM 藍浦 聖住寺 朗慧和尙 白月葆光塔碑文

IV. STELE INSCRIPTION OF PŎPGYŎNG HYŎNHUI 忠州 淨土寺 法鏡大師 慈燈塔碑文

V. STELE INSCRIPTION OF WŎNJONG CH’ANYU 驪州 高達院 元宗大師 惠眞塔碑文

VI. STELE INSCRIPTION OF PŎBIN T’ANMUN 海美 普願寺 法印國師 寶乘塔碑文

VII. STELE INSCRIPTION OF CHIGWANG HAERIN 原州 法泉寺 智光國師 玄妙塔碑文

VIII. STELE INSCRIPTION OF TAEGAK ŬICH’ŎN 開城 靈通寺 大覺國師碑文

IX. STELE INSCRIPTION OF POJO CHIMUL 順天 松廣寺 佛日普照國師碑文

X. STELE INSCRIPTION OF POGAK IRYŎN 軍威 麟角寺 普覺國尊 靜照塔碑文

XI. STELE INSCRIPTION OF WŎNJŬNG POU 楊州 太古寺 圓證國師 塔碑文

XII. STELE INSCRIPTION OF CH’ŎNGHŎ HYUJŎNG 淮陽 表訓寺 白華庵 淸虛堂 休靜大師碑文

XIII. APPENDIX: STELE INSCRIPTIONS OF KOREAN NUNS

1. Stele Inscription of the Nun Sasin Nak’am-dang at Singye-sa, in Kosŏng 高城 神溪寺 比丘尼 洛庵堂思信碑文

2. Text of the Stele of the female Great Master, the Nun Chŏngyu, at Pohyŏn-sa in Yŏngbyŏn. 寧邊 普賢寺 比丘尼 定有女大師碑文

3. Text of the Stele Commemorating the Virtuous Deeds of the bhikṣuṇī Seman at Naejang-sa in Chŏng’ŭp. 井邑 內藏寺 比丘尼 世萬功德記念碑文

 

 

Doing practice by Ganhwaseon in America
From International Symposium of Bojo Thoughts Institute, 16, November, 2005
Ven. Jong-Ho (Prof. Mun Gi, Bark) Dept. of Seon, Dongguk Univ. & Graduate School

Ⅰ. Introduction

It has been taken for 50 years or more since Seon(Zen in Jap./ Ch'an in China/Sitting Meditation in the US) had been introduced as a technique of practice in American society. Many Zen masters came to the States from South-eastern areas; Korea, China, Taiwan, Myanmar, Sri-Lanka, Vietnam, and then they made up a new linage of American Zen, since Suzuki Shunryu(1904~1971) had built San Francisco Zen Center(SFZC) in 1958, in which a hall for practicing and a farm for self-sufficiency are completed.
Today, it is due to them that there are the various methods of Zen with many Zen-Centers and web-sites on internet for meditation practice in the States. If we surf on internet for a moment, immediately, we'd find out hundreds of web-sites related with Zen. I heard, that there are about 30 to 50 thousand of Zen Centers in the States, by a Zen-practitioner whom I met, while I was staying in the States in 2004.
Among them, first SFZC is organizing 9 Zen Centers around San Francisco, 10 in California area and 14 in the other areas. And Tibetan Shambhalla Center is organizing about 1,500 branches all around the States, IMS(Insight Meditation Society) is organizing about 5 hundred or more, and there are lots of Zen-Centers and practitioners. We can say, the number is not so considerable in the big country, but it is raised up so rapidly for a short period.
I classified the groups in the States into 4 methods of practice; Vajrayana Practice by Tibetan gurus, Vippassana Practice by South-eastern practitioners, Mook-jo Seon(Silent Illumination without kong-an/kung-an in China) by Japanese practitioners and Gan-hua Seon(Meditation with kong-an or hua-t'ou) by Korean, Japanese and Chinese practitioners. By the methods, Vajrayana is surpassed others, Vipassana is the next, and then Mook-jo, and the last is Gan-hua.
Hereby, specifically I'll look into the Gan-hua Seon method in American society. In the lineage of Gan-hua Seon, there are separated to many families from their own Zen Masters, but I'll study a few big families among them and also study the field related with 3 countries; Korea, China, Japan. I don't want to review the great Zen Masters' biographies, either. So I'd like to mention their activities inside of the States.

Ⅱ. Gan-hwa Seon of Zen-Master, Joshu S, Roshi

1. Life of Zen-Master, Joshu S, Roshi
Joshu Sasaki Roshi(1907~ ) arrived in L.A. on July, 1962, because his teacher asked him to go to America to teach Zen Buddhism and at that time, Dr. Robert Harmon and Dr. Gladys Weisbart had been independently trying to bring a Rinzai Zen monk to L.A. They sponsored Master Joshu Roshi to come to the US.
After arriving there, the Master Rhoshi began to teach Zen(Seon) for a few Zen students in a small house lent by Dr. Harmon. Before long, his teaching were attracting so many Zen students and the more lay-people gathered to learn his Zen teaching. At last, the Cimarron Zen Center, since renamed Rinzai-ji Zen Center as the first Zen Center, was opened in L.A.1)
Three year later, Rinjai-ji's main training center, Mt. Baldy Zen center, was opened. This Center has gained a reputation in international Zen circles for its rigorous practice for 19 hours a day. Most of Rinjai-ji's monks and nuns have received some or all of intensive training there.
And Michelle Martin who were practicing at Mt. Baldy Zen center, asked to practice in New Mexico area, and then Master, Joshu S, Roshi opened Jamez Bodhi Mandala, now Bodhi Mandala Zen Center in 1974. It became Master J. S, Roshi's second training Center, offering daily Zazen(Ch'am Seon/Sitting Meditation) and communal work practice. In this Center, all practitioners were growing fresh greens and fruits together. It means Zen practice is not different from farming everyday life.
For 5 years, Master J. S, Roshi had never tired, offering Zazen(Ch'am Seon/Sitting Meditation), investigating kong-an, having private Dharma meeting in a very small house. He had always served tea, cooked for himself, whenever he met with anyone who came to practice. Specially, to commemorate his fifth birthday in 1967, he began to practice Seven-Day Intensive Retreat(Dai-Sesshin) at first, which has developed to another tradition for practice under the Master J. S, Roshi's teaching. During the Intensive Retreat, practitioners usually do Zazen(Ch'am Seon/Sitting Meditation). Now there are 21 branches in the US under his teaching.
It is notable that the Master J. S, Roshi has held the Buddhist Sutra Seminar every summer at Mt. Baldy Zen Center since 1977. Over 16 years, many Buddhist scholars have taken part in the seminar from other countries. Naturally, Rinjai Zen under Master J. S, Roshi's teachings was more prevalent.
He has taught his Zen students with old patriarchs' Dharma Talks and interviewed them in the face of him with private until now, though he is walking 98th year. It is interesting that he was familiar with Korean Zen Master, Seung Sahn friendly. And he was very sad, when the Master, Seung Sahn passed away in 2004.
2. Gan-hua Seon of Zen-Master, Joshu S, Roshi
Even though Master J. S, Roshi has taught Gan-hwa Seon with kong-ans under Rinzai-ji, I wonder how he has checked the kong-ans for his Zen students. As for me, it was difficult to get the related data more. However, it's obvious that he teaches Zen(Sitting Meditation) with hard, using the traditional method of 'investigating kong-an' and his own modern style. I confirmed to the Zen Center of Master J. S, Roshi a few times, that Master J. S, Roshi gives Hua-t'ou to the Zen students who is needed to test and checks the answers in the face of him. But usually beginners have learned the 'counting breathing' first and then, 'investigating Hua-t'ou' one after another.
Until now they have kept on practicing '7-Day Intensive Retreat' one or two times a month, and Master J. S, Roshi has had private interview directly 4 times everyday during the period. At that time, usually he gives big questions(Hua-t'ou) as follow; "Who am I?", "What am I?", "What was my original face before I was born?", "What is it?".
However, we couldn't confirm any more because they don't want show their private teachings. They wants to come and ask for their methods of practice the Zen Center, if somebody would have any question. Though Master J. S, Roshi is a Japanese, he has chosen only Gan-hua(Investigating Hua-t'ou), not Mook-jo(Silent Illumination) as the methods of practice.
And we know he also uses the Buddhist daily-service or communal working and so forth, by the methods of practice, on his web-sites. During the 'Intensive Retreat', practitioners do Zazen(Ch'am Seon/Sitting Meditation), must keep silence, and finally can be free out of all delusion. By doing this, we could attain the self-nature and get wisdom to help all sentient-beings everyday life.2)
Consequently, Master J. S, Roshi emphasizes that you attain your true nature through the practice with kong-ans, and apply the wisdom into your real life. For the purport, he teaches Zazen(Ch'am Seon with Hua-t'ou), Intensive Retreat(Dai Sesshin), checks the kong-ans(private interview) directly, and 'counting breathing' for the beginners. And on farming greens and fruits, he leads the practitioners to apply daily life with Zen.

Ⅲ. Gan-hua Seon of Zen-Master, Sheng-yen

1. Life of Zen Master, Sheng-yen
Zen Master, Sheng-yen(聖嚴, 1931~ ) was born in a small village near Shanghai in 1931. Later on his Japanese teacher, Bantetsugu Roshi who met in his studying in Japan, asked him to teach Ch'an(Zen/Seon) Buddhism in the US. But he couldn't speak English, so hesitated to leave. However, his teacher encouraged to him, 'Zen doesn't rely on words. Why worry about words?'
When he had traveled to the State in 1977, where he had served as the abbot of a temple in New York for a while. And he opened a Ch'an(Seon/Meditation) Center in Queens, New York, to propagate Chinese Ch'an(Zen) in there. In 1978 he became a professor at Chinese Culture Univ. in Taipei. In 1980 he found a Ch'an(Seon/Zen) Center and Chung-Hwa Buddhist Cultural Institute in New York. In 1989 founded the International Cultural and Educational Foundation of Dharma Drum Mountain and reopened the Center in Queens to New York Branch of ICEFDDM. Nowadays there are 24 branches of ICEFDDM in New York. In the Center, there are organizing many programmes as follow; 'One-Day Ch'an Retreat', 'One-Day Recitation Retreat', 'Three-Day Recitation Retreat', 'Seven-Day Intensive Hua-t'ou Retreat', 'Ten-Day Intensive Silent Illumination Retreat', 'Family Zen Camp' and so forth. Specially they have Dharma meeting for questions and answers every programme.
Finally, Master Sheng-yen had affected to open the Buddhist subject in almost 40 universities in the US. Currently 3,000 or more Zen students follow him in the States and about 300,000 are learning under his teaching in Taiwan. The Master has published more than 90 books, available in English, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, French and other languages.
It is notable that the Master received by two major lineages of Ch'an(Zen/Seon) Buddhism; Lin-Ji(Rinzai) School and Cao-Dong(Soto) School, and he became the Dharma heir in these two traditions. At age 28, sojourning at various monasteries, he had the deepest spiritual experience of his life. The experiences were recognized by the masters later. In 1975 he formally received transmission from Ch'an(Zen/Seon) Master Dong-Chu(東初, 1908-1977) of Cao-Dong(Soto) School and in 1978, from Ch'an(Zen/Seon) Master Ling Yuan(靈源, 1902-1988) of the Lin-Ji(Rinzai) School.3)

2. Gan-hua Seon of Zen-Master, Sheng-yen

The Master emphasizes not only Gan-hua Seon(Ch'an/Zen), but also teaches sutras, mantra practice, and all the methods for practice. In his Dharma talking, there are basically included the Buddha's teachings, theory of cause and effect, rebirth(samsara), emptiness and so forth. He also applies 'Gan-hua Seon(investigating kung-an)' of Lin-Ji(Rinzai) School, 'Mook-jo Seon(silent illumination without kung-an)' of Cao-Dong(Soto) School and 'Ji-kwan(止觀/ Great Shamatha)' of T'ien-t'ai School for practice. Regardless of the methods, he uses all the types for practice like; 'counting breaths', 'reading sutras', 'invoking mantra', 'reciting buddha's names', 'walking meditation', 'investigating Hua-t'ou', 'silent illumination' and others.
'Ch'an encompasses four key concepts: faith, understanding, practice, and realization. Faith belongs to the realm of religion; understanding is philosophical; practice is belief put into action; and realization is enlightenment. Without faith, we cannot understand; without understanding, we cannot practice; and without practice, we cannot realize enlightenment. Together, these four concepts create the doorway we enter to attain wisdom."4) It means that the Master thought all the methods of practice are related with each other.
In practicing meditation, Master Sheng-yen explained very simply. For beginners sitting postures on the cushion and the way of counting breaths is taught first. It is important that body and mind be relaxed. If one is physically or mentally tense, trying to meditate can be counter-productive. Sometimes certain feelings or phenomena arise while meditating. If you are relaxed, whatever symptoms arise are usually good. It can be pain, soreness, itchiness, warmth or coolness, these can all be beneficial. But in the context of tenseness, these same symptoms may indicate obstacles.
For example, despite being relaxed when meditating, you may sense pain in some parts of the body. Frequently, this may mean that tensions you were not aware of are benefiting from the circulation of blood and energy induced by meditation. A problem originally existing may be alleviated. On the other hand, if you are very tense while meditating and feel pain, the reason may be that the tension is causing the pain. So the same symptom of pain can indicate two different causes: an original problem getting better, or a new problem being created.5)
The methods of Ch'an(Zen) that the Master, Sheng-yen has taught in the States are divided into three stages. The first stage is to balance the development of body and mind in order to attain mental and physical health. The second is free from the sense of the small "I". The third is free from the large "I" to no "I".
The method of the first stage is very simple. Mainly it requires you to relax all the muscles and nerves of your entire body, and concentrate your attention on the method you have just learned. With regard to the body, we stress the demonstration and correction of the postures of walking, standing, sitting and reclining. Because the tension of your muscles and nerves affects the activity of the brain, the key is therefore to reduce the burden on your brain.
In the second stage you begin to enter the stage of meditation. When you practice the method of cultivation taught by your teacher, you will enlarge the sphere of the outlook of the small "I" until it coincides with time and space. The small "I" merges into the entire universe, forming a unity. When you look inward, the depth is limitless; when you look outward, the breadth is limitless. Since you have joined and become one with universe, the world of your own body and mind no longer exists. What exists is the universe, which is infinite in depth and breadth. You yourself are not only a part of the universe, but also the totality of it.
In the third stage you realizes that the concept of the "I" does not exist. But you have only abandoned the small "I" and have not negated the concept of basic substance or the existence of God; you may call it Truth, the one and only God, the Almighty, the Unchanging Principle, or even the Buddha of Buddhism. If you think that it is real, then you are still in the realm of the big "I" and have not left the sphere of philosophy and religion.
I must emphasize that the content of Ch'an(Zen) does not appear until the third stage. Chan is unimaginable. It is neither a concept nor a feeling. It is impossible to describe it in any terms abstract or concrete.6)
What is the Master's methods for Ch'an(Zen) practice? He showed two styles for getting enlightenment; Gan-hwa Seon(Ch'an/Zen) with hua-t'ou of Lin-Ji(Linjai) School and Mook-jo Seon(Silent Illumination without hua-t'ou) of Cao Dong(Soto) School. Both of them enables us to be relaxed physically or mentally, and concentrate on mindfulness. The purpose of practicing Ch'an is to "Illuminate the mind and see into one's true nature." This investigation is also called " Clearly realizing one's self-mind and completely perceiving one's original nature."
There are many hua-t'ou as such; "Who is dragging this corpse around?" "All dharmas return to one, where does this one return to?" "Before you were born what was your original face?' and "Who is reciting Buddha's name?" is common.
In fact, all hua-t'ou are the same. There is nothing uncommon, strange, or special about them. If you wanted to, you could say: "Who is reciting the sutras?" "Who is reciting the mantras? "Who is prostrating to the Buddha? " Who is eating?" "Who is wearing these clothes?" "Who's walking?" "Who's sleeping?" They're all the same.
The Master Sheng-yen said, the answer to the question "who" is derived from one's Mind. Mind is the origin of all words. Thoughts come out of Mind ; Mind is the origin of all thoughts. Innumerable dharmas generate from the Mind ; Mind is the origin of all dharmas. In fact, hua-t'ou is a thought. Before a thought arises, there is the origin of words. Hence, looking into a hua-t'ou is contemplating Mind. There was Mind before your parents gave birth to you, so looking into your original face before you were born is contemplating Mind. 7)
Hence, hua-t'ou's involving the word "who" are wonderful methods for practicing Ch'an. You have to investigate the great doubt, whenever you walking, standing, sitting and reclining. A necessary element of Hua-t'ou practice is the presence of a sense of doubt. It doesn't mean thinking or considering of an idea repeatedly. By the Great doubt, it means a burning, uninterrupted persistence to get the root of a question which is unanswerable. That is the core of Gan-hua Seon practice.

Ⅳ. Gan-hua Seon of Zen master, Seung Sahn, Haeng-won

1. His motivation and development for propagating
Zen Master, Seung Sahn, Haeng-won(1927-2004) arrived at the States in April 1972, when he was 42. In there he saw the sight, that Japanese people were practicing Ch'am Seon(zazen/sitting meditation) at a Zen Center in L.A. He was shocked and thought, 'Why don't we, Korean monks, teach the Seon(Zen) like that?' At the next moment, he determined firmly to propagate Korean Gan-hua Seon(Kanna Zen) in the States.8)
However, the Master couldn't speak English. So, he called Jeong-sun, Kim who was a professor for the Uni. of Rhode Island State, and began to propagate his Zen talks for his Zen students in his house with him.
Before long time, the more people came to listen to his Zen talks at his small house. So, the Master lent a small apartment in Providence and began to transmit his Dharma Talk in there, and then around 50 to 90 Zen students gathered to listen per week. Finally, October 10th of the year, Providence Zen Center was opened with great.
As the Dharma meeting at Providence had developed, so many lay-people came to become one of his Zen disciples from all the areas. Consequently, he opened Cambridge Zen Center in Massachusetts in 1974, New Haven Zen Center in Connecticut in 1975, and Dharma Zen Center in L.A. in 1976, one after another.
From 1976, Seung-Sahn Zen Master has affected on lay-people very tremendously. For his teaching style, he has taught Zen students directly in the face of him, and corresponded with them frequently. Specifically, Stephen Mitchell who was called Ven. Moo-Gak as his buddhist name, published "Dropping Ashes on the Buddha in 1976", which is the collections of the Master's Dharma Talks, questions & answers with his students, stories for the old Zen masters or patriarchs, and the letters corresponded with his American Zen students and so forth. In a twinkle, the book was recorded as a best-seller on the list, and then many people who read it wanted to become his disciples eagerly.
Until now, in the US, there are opened 29 Zen Centers, and so many people are practicing Korean Seon(Zen/Meditation) under his teaching in there.

2. Gan-hua Seon of Zen Master, Haeng-won, Seung Sahn
The core of his teaching is 'see your true nature!' and practice to attain the 'true nature', as it is just substantial world for us.
The Master said, "The most important thing that characterized their practice is that they simply looked inside, very deeply inside, to find their true nature. This is how the Buddha's first students attained his teaching, preserved it, and passed it down to us."9)There are layed emphasis on the 'attain true-nature' through his all teachings. The Master pointed that the true nature is already realized as it is.
"Zen teaching is very clear and simple. It points directly at our self-nature so that we can wake up and help this world. When you see, when you hear, when you smell, when you taste, when you touch, when you think-everything, just like this, is the truth. Everything is Buddha-nature. Everything is your true nature."10) "Zen Buddhism means going from the world of ignorance and delusion and attaining the perception that everything is truth, just as it is. This world is already complete, and never moving. If you want to attain that point, first you must let go of your opinions, your condition, and your situation. You can see clearly, hear clearly, smell clearly, taste clearly, touch clearly and think clearly. The name for that is truth."11)
Everything is already truth, and true Dharma. Zen Master, Seung-Shan admits all the styles of Buddhist practice to attain the true nature. He didn't insist on any special word, any meaning or any form to get enlightenment.
"In Buddhist practice we can say that there are four main techniques for learning Buddha's teaching: reading sutras, invoking the name of the Buddha, mantra practice, and meditation. Even though meditation is known to be the most direct way of realizing the Buddha's teaching, each of these can help you very much. But if you become attached to sutras, or to invoking the Buddha's name, or to mantras, or even to certain aspects of formal sitting meditation, then any one of these techniques will hinder you and drag you off the path. So the important thing to remember is not to become attached to anything, but rather to use each practice or technique correctly to find your true nature."12)
Though our goal is to attain true nature ultimately, every technique will be helpful for us as the above; reading sutra, invoking the name of the Buddha, mantra practice, and meditation. "No matter what the tradition, the point of any meditation practice is to help you realize your own original nature so that you can help all sentient beings get out of suffering. Meditation(Zen) is not about making something special. It is not about having some peaceful experience of stillness and bliss."13) The most important thing is finding your true nature, not the technique, the Master means that.
But the Master insists on the practicing whatever you've got enlightened in your everyday life. Of course, even though attaining true nature means that we have nothing to attain because everything is already complete, through the practicing to attain, we could keep a not-moving mind in any situation or condition and control the mind clear from moment to moment and control all the functions correctly to help all sentient beings. Meditation doesn't mean only sitting in a straight posture, but keep your mind clearly all the time. "So moment-to-moment do-it mind is very important. Just-now mind. It has no subject and no object."14)
Hereby, Zen Master, Seung-Shan specially teaches Gan-hua Seon as a technique for practicing. In his teaching there are two types of kong-ans(hua-t'ou/ big question); one is for looking inside, and the other is for testing the hua-t'ou(big questions) as follow; 'Who am I?', 'What am I?', 'Only don't know!' and so forth. "There are many, many teaching words in this book. There are Hynayana word, Mahayana words, and Zen word. There are Buddhist and Christian words...........too many words! But all of these words are not necessary. Words and speech are only thinking, and thinking makes suffering. You must throw them all in the garbage! The reason for this is that our true nature is not dependent on understanding. This is why I only teach "don't know."......."Don't know" is not Buddhist or Christian or Zen or anything................I only teach 'don't know'"15) Master said, 'never forget these big questions, 'Only don't know!', 'What am I?' and so forth.
"In the Kwan Um School of Zen............., the point of kong-an practice is to show you how to connect your don't know mind with everyday life. How does your meditation on the cushion find its correct function, from moment to moment, to help other people? Nowadays this world is moving very quickly, and there are always new situations....................If you only hold on to 'Mu(無, nothing)', attach to old poetic commentaries, and make some special experience out of Zen practice, you will lose your way. When you step out onto the street keeping 'Muuuuuuuu', maybe you will be hit by a car because you are only holding One Mind. However, our style of kong-ans means using kong-ans as practice to instantly perceive your correct situation, your correct relationship to that situation, and your correct function in that situation."16)
Not holding One Mind, but perceiving your correct situation in your everyday life using the kong-ans. His teaching means that practice to attain your true nature using kong-an, and get wisdom in everyday life. On these days, it is important to apply the kong-ans in our everyday living.
These kong-ans were conventional methods for the Zen masters to review if their students got the right view through practicing in the past.
"When a Zen student practices hard and claims to have attained some insight into his or her true nature, how can this be proven or shown? This is the meaning of kong-ans and kong-an practice."17)
"If some monk thought he got enlightenment, a master could test him by presenting him with the story or teaching of another monk's enlightenment experience. Any monk who truly had some sort of realization would hear the kong-an and instantly understand its true meaning. "18)
There are 10 major kong-ans available to Zen students. ①Does a dog have Buddha-nature? Joju answered, (Joju's Dog /趙州無字) ②Joju's "Wash your Bowls."(趙州洗鉢) ③Seong Am Calls "Master."(巖喚主人) ④Bodhidharma has No Beard. ⑤Hyang Eom's "Up a Tree."(香嚴上樹) ⑥Dropping Ashes on the Buddha. ⑦Ko Bong's Three Gates(高峰三關). ⑧Dok Sahn Carrying His Bowls. ⑨Nam Cheon Kills a Cat(南泉斬猫). ⑩The Mouse Eats Cat food., and “Three Men Walking." etc. "If you finish the Ten Gates(10 major kong-ans), you get this as special home-work. And if you pass this, the Zen master checks your center and you can get inka19)
As the above, Seung Shan Zen Master's Gan-hua Seon is composed of practice and checking with his kong-ans,"Only don't know!" and so forth. This style is a little different from traditional practice in Gan-hua Seon of Korea. Traditionally, kong-ans(hwa-t'ou) are used to get enlightenment with practice. However, Zen Master, Seung Shan is using them to quest and answer for checking. He applies them in everyday life as conventional methods to get wisdom and to realize right view from moment to moment.

Ⅴ. Conclusion

All the 3 Zen Masters do not insist on Gan-hua Seon only. They are using all the methods for practice such as; Mook-jo Seon practice, reading sutra, invoking mantra, counting breaths and so forth. If some monk said that I solved one Hua-t'ou, the Masters never admitted him to be a realized man. Because they are all stand for gradual enlightenment, rather than sudden enlightenment.
Moreover, the Zen Masters give the big questions and check the answers to their Zen students in the face of them. By using kong-ans, the Masters lead their students to look back on their self-nature, and apply the attainments to everyday life.
Hereby, I'd like to summary the patterns of Gan-hua Seon practice in the US.
First, all the Masters have practiced strongly under their own Buddhist views.
Second, they are emphasizing on the ultimate attainment of practice, not their own methods for practice. Therefore, they are using all kinds of methods to teach their Zen students such as; counting breaths, invoking mantra, reciting buddha's names, reading sutras, prayer chanting and so forth.
Third, they are stand for gradual enlightenment, not sudden enlightenment for practice. There are 3 stages to get enlightenment. Masters gives kong-ans to the practitioners every stage and checks the answers.
Fourth, the Masters give hua-t'ou to their Zen students for contemplating original self-nature. Not only traditional kong-ans, but also common questions like 'Who am I?' are given to them.
Fifth, the Masters give questions to the Zen students and check the answers continuously. Specifically, this is the main method that the Zen Masters teach their students.
Sixth, the Masters teach to the practitioners Zen practice, and also to apply what they have learned or attained to their own everyday lives.
The Zen Masters have found many Zen Centers in the US for themselves to teach their students, and they have already been able to speak English. Furthermore, now they are transmitting Dharma to the native Americans in active.
For long time, the Zen Masters have considered how to teach the American lay-people and finally they got what the Western Zen practitioners want. Even though their methods for teaching are a little different from traditional styles, those are by far the best for the American practitioners, I think.
However, I regret that I haven't studied how the Zen Masters could overcome the cultural or social gaps between the countries, and teach the foreign people in the face of them directly. And I wonder how their teachings affected to the U.S. society or inspired to every Zen student spiritually. I haven't looked for any social or environmental effects derived from the Masters' Zen teachings yet.
If I had an opportunity, I would review all the above and the prospects of Zen Buddhism for the future in the States.

Notes

1) http://www.azc.org/azc-about-roshi.html
http://www.rinjaiji.org/about/history.html
2) http://www.mbzc.org/zen-practice/center.html
3) http://www.chan1.org/shifu.html
http://www.ddm.org.tw/master/index.asp
4) http://www.chancenter.org/ddp/talks/practice-m.htmldp/talks/practice-m.html
5) http://www.chancenter.org/ddp/talks/zuochan.htmldp/talks/zuochan.html
6) http://www.chancenter.org/ddp/talks/chan-m.htmldp/talks/chan-m.html
7) http://www.chancenter.org/ddp/talks/practice-m/html
8) http://www.hwagyesa.org/sungsan//,
http://www.kwanumzen.org/dssn//
9) "The Compass of Zen", Zen Master Seung Sahn, compiled and edited by Hyon-Gak Sunim, (Shambhalla, Boston& London, 1997.) p249.
10) Ibid., p261.
11) Ibid., p272.
12) Ibid., p245.
13) Ibid., p349.
14) Ibid., p.314.
15) Ibid., p.349.
16) Ibid., pp.356-7.
17) Ibid., p.262.
18) Ibid., p.265.
19) Ibid., p.389.

 

 

Korea Journal
https://www.ekoreajournal.net/

History of Korean Buddhism
by Kwon Sang-No
(Vol.4 No.5 May 1964 , pp.8~14)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=227

The Life of the Ven. Chinul
by Pak Song-Bae
(Vol.11 No.2 Feb. 1971 , pp.19~23)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=753

Modern Son Buddhism in Korea (1)
by Sok Do-Ryun
(Vol.5 No.1 Jan. 1965 , pp.26~30)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=271

Modern Son Buddhism in Korea (2)
by Sok Do-Ryun
(Vol.5 No.2 Feb. 1965 , pp.27~32)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=277

Modern Son Buddhism in Korea (3)
by Sok Do-Ryun
Vol.5 No.4 April 1965 , pp.17~22
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=292

Sun Buddhism in Korea (I)
by Suk Do-Ryun
(Vol.4. No.1 Jan., 1964 pp.34~40)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=197

Sun Buddhism in Korea (II)
by Suk Do-Ryun
(Vol.4. No.3 March, 1964 pp.41~47)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=211

Sun Buddhism in Korea (III)
by Suk Do-Ryun
(Vol.4. No.4 April, 1964 pp.32~37)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=217

Sun Buddhism in Korea (IV)
by Suk Do-Ryun
(Vol.4. No.5 May, 1964 pp.31~36)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=223

Sun Buddhism in Korea (V, Concluding chapter)
by Suk Do-Ryun
(Vol.4. No.6 June, 1964 pp.28~31)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=230

Characteristics of Korean Zen
by Seo Kyung-Bo
(Vol.12. No.5 May, 1972 pp.29~36)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=878

The Present Situation of Korean Buddhism
by Sŏ Kyŏng-Su
(Vol.11. No.5 May, 1971 pp.15~20)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=780

Sleeping Wisdom Awakens: Korean Buddhism in the 1990s
by Frank M. Tedesco
(Vol.33. No.3 Autumn, 1993 pp.5~10)
PDF: https://www.ekoreajournal.net/issue/view_pop.htm?Idx=2825

 

 

Koreai nevek magyar átírása
http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Koreai_nevek_%C3%A1t%C3%ADr%C3%A1sa
http://u.hanami.hu/wp/koreaiatiras.cgi

Koreai buddhizmus
http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koreai_buddhizmus

PDF: BALOGH Tibor: Sŏn mesterek a 20. század első felében
In: Aspects of Korean Civilization. Ed. by Birtalan Ágnes. Budapest : Eötvös Lóránd University, Dept. of Inner Asian Studies, 2002. pp. 4–12.

 

구산선종 / 九山禪宗 Gusan seonjong / Nine Mountain Monasteries
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_mountain_schools
http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dziewi%C4%99%C4%87_g%C3%B3rskich_szk%C3%B3%C5%82_s%C5%8Fn
http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EA%B5%AC%EC%82%B0%EB%AC%B8

Kuszan szondzsong: A Kilenc Hegy Iskolája / A kilenc hegyi kolostor
Számos koreai tanulmányozta a csant Kínában, és hazatérésüket követően vezető tanítványaikkal megalapították saját iskoláikat különböző hegyi kolostorokban. Kezdetben ezeknek az iskoláknak a száma kilenc darabban volt meghatározva.

 

Koreanisztikai bibliográfia
Összeállította: Fődi Attila
Szakmailag ellenőrizte: Osváth Gábor
Buddhizmus

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Balogh Tibor: Sŏn mesterek a 20. század első felében. In: Aspects of Korean Civilization. Ed. by Birtalan Ágnes. Budapest : Eötvös Lóránd University, Dept. of Inner Asian Studies, 2002. pp. 4–12.

Birtalan Ágnes: Korea, a Hajnali Üdeség Hona : Koreai vallások : Buddhizmus 1. In: Selyemút : Ázsiai kultúrák folyóirata, 1997. I. évf. 1. szám. pp. 24–27.

Birtalan Ágnes: Korea, a Hajnali Üdeség Hona : Koreai vallások : Buddhizmus 2. In: Selyemút : Ázsiai kultúrák folyóirata, 1997. I. évf. 2. szám. pp. 8–9.

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Szigeti György: Szung Szán zen mester élete és tanítása. [Szakdolgozat]. Budapest : A Tan Kapuja Buddhista Főiskola, 1996. 76 p.

[Sung San Haeng Wŏn, 숭산행원, 崇山行願] Szung Szán zen mester: Hamut a Buddhára. Ford. Szigeti György, Sólyom Melinda, Hörcher Péter, Virágh Szabolcs. Budapest : Kvanum Zen Iskola Magyarországi Közössége, [2005]. (Dropping Ashes on the Buddha : The Teaching of Zen Master Seung Sahn). 259 p. ISBN 963 7310 46 0

[Sung San Haeng Wŏn, 숭산행원, 崇山行願] Szung Szán zen mester: Melyik úton mész? : A Zen iránytű c. könyv (Shambhala, 1997) bevezetője. [Ford. [Fődi Attila] Kwang Hae és [Szabó Réka] Kwang Shim]. [Budapest : Kvanum Zen Iskola Magyarországi Közössége, 2005.] 17 p. nincs ISBN szám

[Sung San Haeng Wŏn, 숭산행원, 崇山行願] Szung Szán zen mester: Zen iránytű : Compass of Zen Teaching by Zen Master Seung Sahn. Ford. Kwang Hae [Fődi Attila]. Budapest : Kvanum Zen Iskola Magyarországi Közössége, 2000. 107 p. nincs ISBN szám

ua. Budapest : Kvanum Zen Iskola Magyarországi Közössége, 2001. 107 p. ISBN 963 000 5647 x

ua. Budapest : Kvanum Zen Iskola Magyarországi Közössége, 2004. 107 p. ISBN 963 000 5647 x

Zen levelek : Szung Szán zen mester tanításai a mindennapokról. Ford. Szigeti György és Erdődy Péter. Budapest : Farkas Lőrinc Imre Könyvkiadó, 1999. (Only Don't Know : The Teaching Letters of Zen Master Seung Sahn). 209 p. ISBN 963 7310 57 6

A téma iránt érdeklődők számára kiváló forrás a Zen tükör : A Zen Kvan Um Iskolájának magazinja, mely 1993–1996 közt háromhavonta jelent meg.