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의상 / 義湘 Uisang (625-702)
(Magyar átírás:) Iszang
Venerable Uisang was born into the gentry class. He left home to become a monk at Hwangboksa Temple in Gyeongju at the of age 19 in 644 C.E. (the 13th year of Queen Seondeok). After renunciation, he studied Seop daeseongnon and the Mind Only School. In 650 C.E., at the age of 25, he and his dharma friend, Wonhyo (617-686), set out for China with the intention of learning the new Buddhist philosophies being taught there. But they were unable to leave the peninsula and got stuck at the frontier of the northern kingdom of Goguryeo. So Venerable Uisang studied the theory of the Buddha Nature and other disciplines under Venerable Bodeok.
In 661 C.E., at the age of 36, he went to Tang China by sea. When he arrived he was so exhausted and tired, that he accepted an invitation to stay with Buddhist laypeople. The daughter of the laypeople he stayed with, Seonmyo, fell in love with him. But he had long ago decided to keep his precept of celibacy and so he could not accept her. Therefore Seonmyo decided to be his disciple forever and vowed to take care of him. There are legends connected with Seonmyo’s sacrifice. When Venerable Uisang encountered danger at sea on his way home and when he had problems building Buseoksa Temple, mysterious help arrived...
In 662 C.E., the next year after his arrival in China, Venerable Uisang studied the doctrines of Huayan philosophy with Ven. Facang (643-712 C.E) under Venerable Zhiyan who was the second patriarch of the Huayan School. His understanding of the doctrine of the Avatamsaka Sutra greatly impressed Master Zhiyan. Later Facang, who became a great expert of the Hwaeom philosophy, asked Uisang to review a book that he had written.
In 671 C.E., at the age of 46, Uisang returned to Silla and he then built Buseoksa Temple in 676 C.E. according to King Munmu’s orders. Once built, the temple became the center of Avatamsaka study and Venerable Uisang became the founder of Hwaeom(Huayan in Chinese) in Silla. And he built 10 more temples of the Hwaeom School in different places in the country and made untiring efforts to strengthen the Hwaeom School.
The social circumstances of the Unified Silla were not completely free from the influence of social position, even though the people in general wanted to put an end to these discriminative dimensions. But Venerable Uisang accepted the people’s wish to do away with discrimination and gave positions to all kinds of people within the Buddhist community. For example, one of his disciples, Venerable Jinjeong, was from the lower classes and Venerable Jitong had been a slave in a nobleman’s household. Though they were from the lowest classes of society, they became central members of the Order.
There is a story related to how much Uisang was concerned about the people’s welfare. King Munmu, who had managed to unify the Three Kingdoms, made the people build and restore fortresses again and again. The king tried to mobilize labor for building a new fortress. When Uisang heard this, he sent a letter to King Munmu.
“If the king rules the people in the right way, even a fortress can be made out of just a line on the ground. Then people don’t dare to cross the line and disaster will be changed into good fortune. But if the king rules unjustly then, though the largest possible fortress is set up, calamity cannot be avoided.” On reading Uisang’s letter, the king canceled the project of building a new fortress.
He kept the precepts very strictly and so his only possessions were his robes and an alms bowl. One day King Munmu, who respected Uisang, gave him a house and slaves. Uisang refused saying, “We, monks, treat people equally whether they be from noble class or below. How can I have slaves? The dharma world is my house, and I am satisfied with living by my alms bowl.”
He lived an ascetic life, taught the philosophy of Avatamasaka (Hwaeom) and led the Buddhism of the Unified Silla Period to be very successful. He passed away at the age of 77 in 702 C.E.
His disciples were referred to as “Uisang’s ten wise ones.” They were masters Ojin, Jitong, Pyohun, Jinjeong, Jinjang, Doyung, Yangwon, Sangwon, Neungin, and Uijeok.
Uisang’s writings are Diagram of the Dharmadhatu of the One Vehicle of Hwaeom, Abstract of Gandhavyha sutra (Ipbeop gyepum chogi), Contemplation on the ten immeasurable revelations (Hwaeom sipmun ganbeop gwan), Explanation on the Sukavativyha sutra (Amitha gyeong uigi), Entreaty to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas (Jeban cheongmun), Written vows to dedicate Baekhwa Monastery (Baekhwa doryang Barwonmun), A Written Statement of One’s Vow to the One Vehicle of Hwaeom (Hwaeom ilsung Barwonmun), and Adoration of Teachers (Tusarye). Among these, Diagram of the Dharmadhatu of the One Vehicle of Hwaeom, was the clearest explanation of Hwaeom philosophy and so it was continuously studied by his disciples. And this was compiled as Essential Record of Dharmadhatu Diagrams (Beopgye dogi chongsurok ) in the Goryeo Period.
3. Characteristics of His Philosophy
Hwaeom Philosophy is very important in Korean Buddhism. As the founder of the Korean Hwaeom School, Uisang’s viewpoint is considered to be the philosophical origin of Korean Buddhism. The core of Uisang’s Hwaeom philosophy is the Buddhist teaching of dependent origination of dharmadhathu (the world of the Law) relying on the Middle way.
The main essence is “One is all, all is one. One is identical to all. All is identical to one.” The Middle Way is the teaching of no distinction. That is, as all things do not have Self Nature, each one unites with the other without obstacles. Therefore, each one consists of elements of everything else. As each one involves all in each, there are no obstacles. In the realm of dependent origination, the unchanging does not exist and nothing has an independent nature. All individuals exist by and through each other and through the relationship of dependent origination. This is the world of dependent origination.
The characteristics of dependent origination according to Uisang are the theory of “the revelation of Buddhahood,” in which all phenomena represent the Awakened One. The relationship of one and all is ultimately equal and is then further equalized to the rational world and to the world of varied phenomena. As far as the theory of the revelation of Buddhahood is concerned, all phenomena themselves are the Awakened One, everything implies a deeper meaning. Therefore, phenomenal identity can be considered to be a theory symbolizing the equality and the harmony of all of the components.
Venerable Uisang solved the conflicts and the difficulties of worldly life through religious harmony and by reconciling the extremes based on this philosophy.
4. VOLUME 4: 華嚴 HWAŎM I: THE MAINSTREAM TRADITION
In: The Collected Works of Korean Buddhism
© 2012 by Compilation Committee of Korean Buddhist Thought, Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism
Edited by Richard D. McBride II
Translated by Richard D. McBride II, Sem Vermeersch
Table of Contents
I. INTRODUCTION: A BRIEF HISTORY OF ŬISANG'S SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE AND ITS VARIORUMS
II. SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE OF THE AVATAṂSAKA
III. VARIORUM ON THE "GĀTHĀ ON THE DHARMA NATURE"
1. Comprehensive Record on the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Realm (Pŏpkye to ki ch'ongsurok 法界圖記叢髓錄): Selections
2. Perfectly Comprehensive Record of the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Realm as the One Vehicle (Ilsung pŏpkye to wŏnt'ong ki 一乘法界圖圓通記): Selections
3. Commentary on the Seal-diagram Symbolizing the Dharma Ream of the Great Avataṃsaka; with Introduction (Tae Hwaŏm pŏpkye to chu (pyŏngsŏ) 大華嚴法界圖注 [幷序])
IV. SELECTIONS FROM THE PERFECTLY COMPREHENSIVE RECORD OF THE SEAL-DIAGRAM SYMBOLIZING THE DHARMA REALM OF THE ONE VEHICLE, ROLL ONE
V. ACCOUNTS OF CONDUCT
Ŭisang's Account of Conduct
1. Ŭisang Transmits the Teachings (義湘傳敎)
2. History of the Transmission of Śarīra (前後所將舍利)
3. The Two Great Saints of Naksan, Kwanŭm and Chŏngch'wi; [The Story of] Chosin
4. Biography of Ŭisang from the Tang dominion of Silla (唐新羅國義湘傳)
Kyunyŏ's Account of Conduct
1. Biography of Kyunyŏ, Double Exalted Great Master of Complete Penetration, Senior Monk 3 of the Great Hwaŏm [Order]; with Introduction (大華嚴首坐圓通兩重大師均如傳并序)