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Block print by Mark T. Morse (mtm)

無門慧開 Wumen Huikai (1183–1260)

無門關 Wumen guan

(Rōmaji:) Mumon Ekai: 無門関 Mumonkan
(English:) The Gateless Gate (or Passage/Barrier/Checkpoint) /
The Barrier That Has No Gate / Wumen's Gate
(Magyar:) Vu-men Huj-kaj: Vu-men kuan / A nincs-hova-menés kapu* / Kapujanincs átjáró** /
Átlépés a seholkapun, avagy A Vumen-hágó***

*©Gulyás László ötlete **©Miklós Pál ***©Terebess Gábor

48 gong-an cases compiled by Wumen Huikai in 1228, with prose and verse commentary. A forty-ninth gong'an by the lay-disciple An-wan (安晚 Jap.: Amban) is usually included. Edited by Zongshao 宗紹 (Jap.: Shūshō).

Chinese texts: Taisho No. 2005 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 292a-299c)
https://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E7%84%A1%E9%96%80%E9%97%9C
http://pesyanko.itigo.jp/wiki/index.php?MUMONKAN%2F%C9%B4%BE%E6%CC%EE%B8%D1


Tartalom

Contents

Átlépés a seholkapun
Fordította: Terebess Gábor

Kapujanincs átjáró tartalomjegyzéke
PDF: Szöveg + jegyzetek
Fordította: Miklós Pál

Nincs Kapu kóan-gyűjtemény
Fordította: Szigeti György

Kapujanincs átjáró
Fordította: Bakonyi Berta

A kaputlan kapu
Fordította: Hadházi Zsolt

A Nincs Kapu
Fordította: Dobosy Antal

Koanok a Wu men kuan gyűjteményből
Fordította: Darabos Pál

Mumonkan
Fordította: Varga Imre

The Gateless Gate
Translated by Eiichi Shimomissé

PDF: Mumonkan
Translated by R. H.
Blyth

PDF: The Gateless Gate
Translated by R. H.
Blyth
Illustrated by Mark T. Morse

PDF: The Barrier That Has No Gate
with Seung Sahn's comments, compiled by Paul Lynch

PDF: The Gateless Gate
Translated by Kōun Yamada

PDF: The Gateless Gate
Translated by Katsuki Sekida (In: Two Zen Classics, pp. 26-137)

The Gateless Gate
Translated by Nyogen Senzaki & Paul Reps

No-Gate Gateway: The Original Wu-Men Kuan
by David Hinton
Shambhala, 2018, 168 p.

Glossary of Terms and Proper Names
Liste des termes et noms propres chinois par Catherine Despeux

An Analysis Of The Koans In The Mu Mon Kwan
by John F. Fisher

PDF: Reflections on The Wumenkuan:
Commentary on the 48 cases of The Gateless Gate
by Stefano Mui Barragato (1930-2010)

The Wu-men kuan (J. Mumonkan) by Ishii Shūdō 石井修道 (1943 –)
Translated by Albert Welter

External links

Trinh Dinh Hy
Passe sans porte (Vô Môn Quan) ou l'esprit du Zen à travers les koan
http://www.truclamthienvien.fr/index.php/tailieu/112-vomonquan

DOC: La Barrière sans porte / Le Mumonkan
Traduction personnelle par Jacques Prestreau

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gateless_Gate
The full title of the work is Chan Zong Wumen Guan 禅宗無門關, and can be translated as The Zen Sect's Gateless Barrier or The Gateless Checkpoint of the Zen Lineage, etc. Chán 禅 is the Chinese source of the word Zen. Zong 宗 means lineage, school, or sect. As the Zen Lineage comes first in the title it is appropriately translated by using the possessive at the beginning or transposing it to the end of the title and using the preposition "of the".

Although the short title The Gateless Gate has become fairly common in English, this translation must be rejected upon closer scrutiny. A particular source of criticism is the fact that in the rendering, "Gateless Gate", the word "gate" occurs twice. However, the two Chinese characters being translated here are 門 (mén) and 關 (guān), which are different words and usually have distinct meanings. In order to more accurately reflect this, the translations The Gateless Passage, The Gateless Barrier or The Gateless Checkpoint are used.

The character 無 () has a fairly straightforward meaning: no, not, or without. However, within Chinese Mahayana Buddhism, the term 無 () is often a synonym for 空 (sunyata). This implies that the 無 () rather than negating the gate (as in "gateless") is specifying it, and hence refers to the "Gate of Emptiness". This is consistent with the Chinese Buddhist notion that the "Gate of Emptiness" 空門 is basically a synonym for Buddhism, or Buddhist practice.

門 (mén) is a very common character meaning door or gate. However, in the Buddhist sense, the term is often used to refer to a particular "aspect" or "method" of the Dharma teachings. For example, 法門 ("fămén") refers to a "Dharma method"; 禪門 ("chánmén") means the "method of meditation". Reading 無門 ("wúmén") in this sense of "the method of not / emptiness" is also in conformity with the text itself, where the first passage describes how to practice the "method of wú", "What is the checkpoint of the Patriarchs? It is just this character "wú", that is the single checkpoint of the (Chán) school" (如何是祖師關。只者一箇無字。乃宗門一關也). This is also the meaning given by Mazu of Hongzhou (洪州馬祖) (according to Zongmi's Records of the Mirror of the School 宗鏡錄), "No method is the Dharma method, is also said to be the emptiness method (無門為法門。亦名空門)..." (T48, no. 2016, p. 418, b13-21).

In modern Chinese, 關 (guān) is most often a verb meaning to close, but it also functions as a noun with the meaning of checkpoint, such as a customs house or a fortress guarding a mountain pass. This implies the literal translation checkpoint without a gate. As a checkpoint is something that can be either closed, functioning as a barrier, or open, functioning as an entry point, this title may be taken to have a double meaning: does "without a gate" mean that the barrier has no gateway through which to pass, or does it mean that the passage has no gate to block it?

One should also note that, as the author of the collection was named Wumen (which could mean either the literal gateless or the figurative gate of emptiness), Wumenguan could also be read as simply, The Checkpoint of Wumen. This corresponds to the passage in the opening of the text, "Just as the General seizes the checkpoint, with a great sword in hand" (如奪得關將軍大刀入手).

*

The text was originally prepared by Wumen as a record of his teaching during a monastic training period held at Longxiang (Soaring Dragon) monastery in the summer of 1228. Wumen selected the 48 koans and commented on and added a verse for each koan. His teachings were transcribed and after the training period were compiled into the collection called the Wumen Guan.

As was customary in China at the time, an edition might have additions of text inserted by a subsequent owner or publisher. The most well known version of the text is from the Japanese wood block edition made from the 1246 manuscript edition that contains the following sections.

 

 

The Gateless Gate
Translated by Eiichi Shimomissé

 

PDF: Mumonkan
Translated by R. H.
Blyth
Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. Four, Mumonkan, Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. 1966, 340 p.

 

PDF: The Barrier That Has No Gate
with Seung Sahn's comments, compiled by Paul Lynch
Wú Mén Guān, The Barrier That Has No Gate, Chan Master Wumen Huikai (1183-1260), Questions and Additional Comments by Sŭngsan Hăngwon (1927-2004), Compiled and Edited by Paul Dōcho'ng Lynch, JDPSN, Sixth Edition, Before Thought Publications, Huntington Beach, CA, 2010

 

PDF: The Gateless Gate [Main Case, Mumon's Commentary, Verse]
The Classic Book of Zen Koans
Translated with Commentary by Kōun Yamada (1907-1989)
Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2004, 336 p.
German vesrsion: Die torlose Schranke. Mumonkan, München, 1989
http://homepage2.nifty.com/sanbo_zen/Mumon-Dt.pdf

 

PDF: The Gateless Gate
Translated by Katsuki Sekida (In: Two Zen Classics, pp. 26-137)

 

Wumen guan 無門關
Glossary of Terms and Proper Names
Liste des termes et noms propres chinois par Catherine Despeux

An Lushan 安祿山

Anwan 安晚 Baiyun Daoming 白雲道明

Baiyun shan 白雲山

Baiyun Shouduan 白雲守端

Baizhang Huaihai 百丈懷海

Baizhang shan 百丈山

Bajiao Huiqing 芭蕉慧清

Bao'anshan guangjiao yuan 寶安山廣教院

Bao'en si 報恩寺

Baofeng 寶峰

Baolin si 寶林寺

Baoying yuan 寶應院

Baxi 巴西

Bei toutuo 备头陀

benlai mianmu 本來面目

biyan huseng 碧眼胡僧

Caoshan 曹山

Caoshan Benji 曹山本寂

Caoxi 曹溪

Caozhou 曹州

Changle 長樂

Changsha Jingcen 長沙景岑

Changxi 長溪

Chen Xun 陳塤

Chengzhao si 澄照寺

chixu 赤鬚

Chizhou 池州

Chuanfa yuan 傳法院

Ciming 慈明

Ciyi 慈懿

Da Fayan chanshi 大法演禪師

Dagui shan 大溈山

Dahui 大慧

Dahui Zonggao 大慧宗杲

Daizong 代宗

Daji chanshi 大寂禪師

Dajian dashi 大鑑大師

Damei Fachang 大梅法常

dangxia 當下

Danqiu Ruiyan 丹丘瑞巖

Dawei shan 大隗山

Dayuan chanshi 大圓禪師

Dazheng chanshi 大證禪師

Dazhi chanshi 大智禪師

Dengzhou 鄧州

Deshan Xuanjian 德山宣鑑

dingpan xing 定盤星

Dongchan si 東禪寺

Dongjia 東嘉

Dongming 東明

Dongshan 洞山

Dongshan Shouchu 洞山守初

Doushuai Congyue 兜率從悅

Dufu shan 獨浮山

Du Ziye 杜子野

Fahai 法海

Fandan 范丹

Faxing si 法性寺

Fayan Wenyi 法眼文益

Fengxiang 風翔

Fengxin 奉新

Fengxue gusi 風穴古寺

Fengxue Yanzhao 風穴延沼

Fenning 分寧

Fenyang Shanzhao 汾陽山昭

foshou 佛手

Foyan chanshi 佛眼禪師

Fuzhou 福州

Ganfeng 乾峯

Ganfeng Yuanhui chanshi 乾峰圓慧禪師

Ganyuan 乾緣

Ganzhou 赣州

Gao'an Dayu 高安大愚

Gu zunsu yulu 古尊宿語錄

Guan Yu 關羽

Guanghui si 廣慧寺

Guangong 關公

Guangyong chanshi 光涌禪師

Guangyuan si 廣園寺

Guanyin yuan 觀音院

Gude chanyuan 古德禪院

Guichi 貴池

Guiji 會稽

Guishan Lingyou 溈山靈佑

Guisheng 歸省

Guizhen chanshi 桂琛禪師

Hangzhou 杭州

Hongren 弘忍

Hongzhou 洪州

Huangbo Xiyun 黃蘗希運

Huanglong Huinan 黃龍慧南

Huanglong shan 黃龍山

Huanglong Wuxin 黄龍悟新

Huangmei 黃梅

Huguo renwang si 護國仁王寺

Huijue dashi 慧覺大師

Huikai 慧開

Huike 慧可

Huineng 慧能

Huiquan 慧泉

Huishan si 會山寺

Huizhao chanshi 慧照禪師

Huo'an Shiti 或庵師體

Hutuo 滹沱

Jiangling 江陵

Jiangsi 講肆

Jiannan 劍南

Jianyang 建陽

Jiaoshan 焦山

jiaowai biechuan 教外別傳

Jiashan Shanhui 夾山善會

Jiaxing 嘉興

Jimiao gongde 集妙功德

Jingshan 徑山

Jingzhou 荊州

Jiufeng shan 鷲峰山

Juzhi 俱胝

Kaifu Daoning 開福道寧

Kaiyuan si 開元寺

Kāśyapa 迦葉

Kongdong shan 崆峒山

Kongzhao chanshi 空照禪師

Laizhou 萊州

Laona Zudeng 老衲祖燈

Li Ao 李翱

Li Fengniang 李鳳娘

Liang 梁

Liangdi guoshi 兩帝國師

Lingmo chanshi 靈默禪師

Lingnan 岭南

Lingshi shan 靈石山

Linji Yixuan 臨濟義玄

Linru xian 臨汝縣

Lixian 澧縣

Liyang 澧陽

Lizhou 澧州

Longquan Songyuan 龍泉松源

Longtan chanyuan 龍潭禪院

Longtan Chongxin 龍潭崇信

Longxiang 龍翔

Longxing fu 龍興府

Longxing si 龍興寺

lüjiao 驢腳

Luohan si 羅漢寺

lüshi 律師

Mahākāśyapa 摩訶迦葉

Mazu Daoyi 馬祖道一

Mi'an fashi 密庵法師

Mianyang 綿陽

Mianzhou 綿州

Miaokong chanshi 妙空禪師

Mingzhou 明州

Miyan Zongshao 彌衍宗紹

Muzhou Daoming 睦州 道明

Nanhua 南華

Nanhua si 南華寺

Nanquan Puyuan 南泉普願

Nanta 南塔

Nanyang Huizhong 南陽慧忠

Nanyuan Huiyong 南院慧顒

Nanyue Huairang 南嶽懷讓

Ningbo 寧波

Pei Xiu 裴秀

pian

Puguang zizaiwang rulai 普光自在王如來

Pujue chanshi 普覺 禪師

Putian 莆田

Puyuan yuan 普圓院

Qingliang yuan 清凉院

Qingyuan Xingsi 青原行思

Qingyuan 慶元

Qingzhou 青州

Qizhou 蘄州

Quanzhou 全州

Quanzhou 泉州

Qujiang 曲江

Ran Huyin 冉虎茵

Ruiyan Shiyan 瑞巖師彥

Ruzhou 汝州

Śākyamuni 釋迦牟尼

Sengliang 僧亮

Shaozhou 韶州

Shenguang 神光

Shenxiu 神秀

Shifang 什方

Shishuang Chuyuan 石霜楚圓

Shoushan guangjiao yuan 首山廣教院

Shoushan Xingnian 首山省念

Simian shan 四面山

Sixin Wuxin 死心悟新

Songshan 嵩山

Songyuan Chongyue 松源崇岳

Suzong 肅宗

Taiping shan 太平山

Tanzhou 潭州

Tao Yuanming 陶淵明

Tianhuang Daowu 天皇道悟

Tianlong 天龍

Tongqing si 同慶寺

Wangming 網明

Wanling 宛陵

Wanshou si 萬壽寺

Weizhou 渭州

Wuben dashi 悟本大師

Wucang zhou 武藏州

Wuliang Zongshou 無量宗壽

Wulin 武陵

Wulou shan 五洩山

Wumen Huikai 無門慧開

Wuwei junchen tu 五位君臣圖

wuxu huseng 無鬚胡僧

wuyi daoren 無依道人

Wuzhui 烏騅

Wuzu Fayan 五祖法演

Xi'an 習蓭

Xiangshan 湘山

Xiangyan Zhixian 香嚴智閑

Xiangyang 襄陽

Xiangyu 項羽

Xiaoxiao 小小

Xiapu xian 霞浦縣

Xindi Juexin 心地覺心

Xingshuai si 興率寺

Xingyang Qingrang 興陽清讓

Xinxing 新興縣

Xinzhou 信州

Xinzhou 新州

Xitang Zhizang 西堂智藏

Xuancheng 宣城

Xuansha Shibei 玄沙師備

Xuanzong 玄宗

Xuefeng Yicun 雪峰義存

Yangqi Fanghui 楊岐方會

Yangshan Huiji 仰山慧寂

Yantou Quanhuo 巖頭全豁

Yichun 宜春

Yifeng 宜豐

Yihuang 宜黃

Yin 鄞

Ying'an Xianhua 應庵縣華

Yingzhou 郢州

Yinjing si 隱靜寺

yixin chuanxin 以心傳心

yizhi 一指

Yong'an chanshi 安永禪師

Youci chansi 佑慈禪寺

Yuan lüshi 圓律師

Yuanwu Keqin 圓悟克勤

Yuanzhao Zongben 圓照宗本

Yuanzheng chanshi 元證禪師

Yue'an Shanguo 月庵善果

Yuelin Shiguan 月林師觀

Yuezhou 越州

Yuhang 餘杭

Yungai Shouzhi 雲蓋守智

Yunmen Wenyan 雲門文偃

Yuquan si 玉泉寺

Yushan玉山

Zhang Shangying 張尚英

Zhaozhou Congshen 趙州從諗

Zhaozhou gufo 趙州古佛

zheng

zhengding 正定

Zhengzhou 鄭州

Zhenji chanshi 真寂禪師

Zhenjiang fu 鎮江府

Zhenjing Kewen 真淨克文

Zhenzhou 鎮州

Zhicheng 志澄

Zhigong 智恭

Zhishen 志諗

Zhisong 智嵩

Zhongling 鍾陵

Zhugong 渚宮

Zhutan Huaideng 泐潭懷澄

Zonghui chanshi 宗慧禪師

Zongjian falin 宗鑑法林

 

 

The Gateless Gate by Mumon (1228)
Transcribed by Nyogen Senzaki (1876–1958) & Paul Reps (1895–1990) in 1934
in Zen Flesh, Zen Bones, pp. 109-161.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Gateless_Gate

  1. Joshu's Dog
  2. Hyakujo's Fox
  3. Gutei's Finger
  4. A Beardless Foreigner
  5. Kyogen Mounts the Tree
  6. Buddha Twirls a Flower
  7. Joshu Washes the Bowl
  8. Keichu's Wheel
  9. A Buddha before History
  10. Seizei Alone and Poor
  11. Joshu Examines a Monk in Meditation
  12. Zuigan Calls His Own Master
  13. Tokusan Holds His Bowl
  14. Nansen Cuts the Cat in Two
  15. Tozan's Three Blows
  16. Bells And Robes
  17. The Three Calls Of The Emperor's Teacher
  18. Tozan's Three Pounds
  19. Everyday Life Is The Path
  20. The Enlightened Man
  21. Dried Dung
  22. Kashapa's Preaching Sign
  23. Do Not Think Good, Do Not Think Not-Good
  24. Without Words, Without Silence
  25. Preaching From The Third Seat
  26. Two Monks Roll Up The Screen
  27. It Is Not Mind, It Is Not Buddha, It Is Not Things
  28. Blow Out The Candle
  29. Not The Wind, Not The Flag
  30. This Mind Is Buddha
  31. Joshu Investigates
  32. A Philosopher Asks Buddha
  33. This Mind Is Not Buddha
  34. Learning Is Not The Path
  35. Two Souls
  36. Meeting A Zen Master On The Road
  37. A Buffalo Passes Through The Enclosure
  38. An Oak Tree In The Garden
  39. Ummon's Sidetrack
  40. Tipping Over A Water Vase
  41. Bodhidharma Pacifies The Mind
  42. The Girl Comes Out From Meditation
  43. Shuzan's Short Staff
  44. Basho's Staff
  45. Who Is He?
  46. Proceed From The Top Of The Pole
  47. Three Gates Of Tosotsu
  48. One Road Of Kembo
  49. Amban's Addition

Cf.
Nyogen Senzaki, Eloquent Silence
Nyogen Senzaki's Gateless Gate and Other Previously Unpublished Teachings and Letters
Wisdom Publications, 2008, 350 pages
The most comprehensive collection available of Nyogen Senzaki's brilliant teachings, Eloquent Silence brings new depth and breadth to our knowledge and appreciation of this historic figure. It makes available for the first time his complete commentaries on the Gateless Gate, one of the most important and beloved of all Zen texts, as well as on koans from the Blue Rock Annals and the Book of Equanimity. Amazingly, some of these commentaries were written while Senzaki was detained at an internment camp during WWII. Also included are rare photographs, poems reproduced in Senzaki's beautiful calligraphy and accompanied by his own translations, and transcriptions of his talks on Zen, esoteric Buddhism, the Lotus Sutra, what it means to be a Buddhist monk, and other subjects. Roko Sherry Chayat has edited Nyogen Senzaki's words with sensitivity and grace, retaining his wry, probing style yet bringing clarity and accessibility to these remarkably contemporary teachings.

 

 

An Analysis Of The Koans In The Mu Mon Kwan
by John F. Fisher
Evanston, U.S.A., Northwestern University
Numen, Vol. 25, Fasc. 1. (Apr., 1978), pp. 65-76.

Introduction

This paper attempts something which at first might seem unusual, that is, to analyze a collection of Zen koans. According to some scholars of Zen, the koan "cannot be understood by logic; it cannot be transmitted in words; it cannot be explained in writing; it cannot be measured by reason" 1 . This seeming contradiction touches upon a basic problem encountered in trying to understand the religious conceptions of another culture. For a religious understanding of koans (by Zennists) there is no need for explanation, indeed there is no way a koan can be analyzed. The intention of the koan is to bring about a state of enlightenment, devoid of conceptualization, beyond the realm of words and even thought. However, for an academic understanding of koans we can, and should, analyze them in order for non-Zennists to comprehend their function and purpose in Zen. We shall return to this point a little later, but first let us explain what constitutes a koan.

Koan is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters kung an, which mean "public record". These characters were used by Buddhists to signify, "'a public document setting up a standard of judgement', whereby one's Zen understanding is tested as to its correctness" 2 . Theoretically koans may take any form, but the most common consists of questions and answers (mondo; wen fa), stories or statements 3 . One of the most famous koans is in the form of a mondo, "The Master Jyoshu was once asked by a monk, 'Has a dog also Buddha-nature or not? Jyoshu said, 'Mu ! ' " 4 Mu (wit) was the character used by Zennists to translate the sanskrit word sunyata, meaning "emptiness" or "devoid of self-nature". However, even with this explanation of mu, the koan appears meaningless to non-Zennists, and many seem to think that the "key" to understanding Zen lies in uttering nonsense. Needless to say, this is not the case. For this analysis, we are going to consider koans as means of communicating a particular understanding of reality, the Zen understanding. By means of koans, Zen Masters are able to convey the most important ideas, attitudes and conceptions of Zen Buddhism. "The koans do not represent the private opinion of a single man, but rather the highest principle, received alike by us and by the hundreds and thousands of bodhisattvas of the three realms and the ten directions" 5 .

If we accept the fact that koans were intended to aid in the attainment of enlightenment (satori; wu), then we must view them as having a single goal and purpose. However, koans appear radically different in form and content; therefore, the problem in analyzing koans lies in discovering the various methods used to achieve the same end. This problem is very similar to the problem faced by students of myth. A group of myths from a given culture appear totally unrelated; however, they are all indicative of a common cultural outlook and it is our problem to understand where the similarities lie, or rather how cultural ideas are communicated through myths. In an attempt to solve this problem, Claude Levi-Strauss pioneered what is known as the structural study of myth. In this type of analysis, myths are treated as a particular type of language which communicate cultural ideas. As a result of his studies, he has offered the following working hypothesis for analyzing myths:

1) If there is a meaning to be found in mythology, it cannot reside in the isolated elements which enter into the composition of a myth, but only in the way those elements are combined.
2) Although myth belongs to the same category as language, being, as a matter of fact, only part of it, language in myth exhibits specific properties.
3) Those properties are only to be found above the ordinary linguistic level, that is, they exhibit more complex features than those which are to be found in any other kind of linguistic expression 6 .

We can immediately see the similarities in the problems encountered when analyzing myths and koans,

1) The meaning in koans does not reside in the isolated elements, i.e., the questions and/or answers, but in the way these elements are combined. That means the simple questions and seemingly irrelevant answers are not as important as the reason for giving a seemingly irrelevant answer to a seemingly simple question.
2) While koans are a form of language, they do exhibit specific properties which enable us to recognize them.
3) The importance of koans is not to be found in the words or actions used, but above the ordinary linguistic level. By comparing an approach to koans and myths, I do not mean to imply that they are the same thing; however, I do think that one might use a similar methodology to facilitate an understanding of both koans and myths. Cultures use various means to communicate their understandings of reality, some use myths, some use laws and regulations. The Zen Buddhists used koans as one means of transmitting their particular ideals, and as such, they are suitable subjects for our analysis.

Brief History of Koans in Zen

Before presenting the analysis of the koans in the MuMon K wan, I would like to give a brief history of the koan in order to place this aspect of Buddhism in perspective. Zen is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese character chan which is, in turn, a transliteration of the Sanskrit word dhyana which means "meditation". This sect of Buddhism places greater emphasis on personal religious experience acquired through meditation than on scripture; however, this does not mean that they reject scripture. The goal of Zen is enlightenment or satori, which is the. goal of all Buddhist sects. Since this enlightenment involves the ability to see things "as they really are" i.e., without conceptualizations, the Zennists believe that the dependence upon words and conceptions should be curtailed - thus their dependence upon meditation. The koan system was developed among Zen Buddhists as a means of facilitating the attainment of satori through meditation. One should understand that the koan is not an object on which the Zennist meditates in order to reach satori; rather, it is a device. to "develop artificially or systematically in the consciousness of the Zen followers what the early masters produced in themselves spontaneously" 7 . This consciousness is devoid of conceptualization and dichotomization, and thus the koan cannot be seen as an object of meditation. To meditate on the words of a koan is an error; rather, one should meditate in order to prepare oneself for realization of that which the koan exemplifies.

Prior to the development of the koan system, this consciousness of ultimate reality (satori) was transmitted by means of questions and answers (mondo) between Masters and students. Students were expected to ask questions of the Masters in order to progress along their spiritual path. When the students had no questions, the Masters would try to raise them in their minds; in order to do this, there developed a group of stock questions. One of the most popular questions asked by pupils was, "Why did Bodhidharma come to China?" i.e., what is the teaching of Zen (Bodhidharma brought Zen teaching to China). The masters, in turn, most frequently asked the students how they came to the monastery. "'Whence comest thou?' was not a question prompted by mere curiosity; for if we really know the whence and the whither we are already masters of Zen" 8 .

The 'most radical change in the use of the koan system came when Masters stopped using koans they themselves had created and began using those of past Masters. According to Ruth Fuller Sasaki, Nan-yüan Hui-yung (Nan'in Egyo, d. 930) questioned one of his disciples about the formulas of Lin-chi (Rinzai Gigen, d. 866) and thus, "Koan Zen, or the use of the words of earlier masters in a fixed and systematized form to instruct or test a student, may be said to have truly begun" 9 . Suzuki names four circumstances which led to the rise of the koan system in Zen. The first was the aristocratic nature of Zen, which had to be curbed if it was to continue as a viable sect. "Aristocratic Zen was now turned into a democratic, systematized and, to a certain extent, mechanized Zen" 10 . Second, several hundred years after the time of the sixth patriarch, Hui-neng (Eno, 638-713), Zen lost some of its originality and had to be renewed in order to stimulate the development of Zen consciousness. The koan, as a means of developing this consciousness, gave new life to the Zen movement. Third, after hundreds of years of development, various "scriptures" began to accumulate among Zennists, The sect which emphasized meditation over scripture began to create its own scripture about meditation and thus invited a process of intellection. If the Zennists thought about past Masters and their doings rather than trying to find satori themselves, then the spirit of Zen would suffer. The koan, as a means of breaking students away from the process of conceptualization, was a means of curbing this intellection process. Fourth, quietism, the opposite of intellection, also became more prevalent in Zen. Thinking that speech, as a process of conceptualization, was detrimental to the attainment of satori, many monks rejected all forms of communication and preferred to sit quietly, contemplating their existence. This type of Zennist forgot that words, even though they may be conceptualizations, w-ere nevertheless necessary for a proper understanding of the purpose of Zen. Koans, being words which lead one to the goal of satori, would serve to dispel this false notion of quietude 11 . The rise of the koan system, thus can be seen as a logical outgrowth of the philosophy behind Zen. As such, koans are a middle path between the two extremes of intellection and quietude.

Analysis of the Koans in the Mu Mon Kwan

The Mu Mon Kwan or Mumonkan is a collection of forty-eight koans compiled by the Master Wu-men Hui-k'ai (Mumon Ekai, 1183-1260). In the preface, the author states the time and purpose of the work.

In the summer of Jyotei I (1228) I was head of the monks at Ryusho monastery in eastern Ka. When they begged me for instruction, I took up the koans of the ancients to make them serve as tiles for knocking at the gate. In guiding each student in accordance with his type, I have noted koans at random which became, without plan, a good collection. There are forty-eight of them, but I have not arranged them in any order. I call the collection the Mu Mon Kwan 12 .

This collection was brought to Japan In 1254 by Shinchi Kakushin, a pupil of Wu-men. For this analysis I have used the English translation by Sohaku Ogata 13 .

The first problem in the analysis consisted of organizing the koans. As stated above, Wu-men did not arrange them in any specific order. At first I thought of organizing them according to the eighteen kinds of questions given by Shan-chao of Fen-yang in Suzuki 14 , but this did not prove fruitful because these questions were only those asked by pupils of Masters, while the Mu Mon Kwan contains questions asked by Masters of pupils and koans which do not contain questions. Because of my limited knowledge of the traditional interpretations of the individual koans, I could not classify them according to the five types given by Sasaki 15 or the eight types given by Ogata 16 . Therefore, I devised my own system of classification, in order to single out common elements in the various koans, After detecting the common elements, I can begin to examine them in order to try and understand the important conceptions represented by the various koans.

The system has two main parts. The first deals with the form of the koan and the second deals with the purpose or example stated in the koan, The first part has three main divisions; I. Questions (which mayor may not have answers), II. Statements Given by Masters (which may be either verbal or non-verbal) and III. Stories (more than one question or statement given in a narrative form). I have further divided the first part into three sections; A. Questions Asked by Pupils of Masters: this includes I. Anonymous Pupils and Named Masters and 2. Named Pupils (possibly future Masters) and Named Masters. B. Questions Asked by Masters of Pupils. This can be of four types; I. Pupil(s) Anonymous - Masters Named, 2. Pupil(s) Named (possibly future Masters) - Masters Named, 3. Named Masters who ask questions in order to find a successor or Master among pupils, and 4. Questions asked by a Master which are without answers. C. Questions asked by Masters of Masters. This classification, together with the numbers of the koans which are included in each category is given in Table I.

The second part of the classification system deals with the purpose or example stated in the koan, i.e., its relationship to enlightenment. A. A Question, Statement or Story Which Results in Enlightenment. B. A Question, etc., Which Exemplifies Enlightenment (both parties are recognized as enlightened). C. A Question, etc. Which Shows the Enlightenment of One Party. D. A Question, etc., Which Shows the Unenlightenment of One Party. This classification is given in Table 2.

TABLE I

I. Questions

A. Asked by Pupil of Master
1. Pupil Anonymous — Master Named: 1, 7, 9, 18, 21, 24, 32, 33, 37, 48.
2. Pupil Named — Master Named: 19, 23, 28.

B. Asked by Master of Pupil(s)
1. Pupil(s) Anonymous — Master Named: 2, 11, 14, 15, 35, 39.
2. Pupil Named — Master Named: 2, 15, 41.
3. Asked to Find New Master or Successor: 40.
4. Questions Without Answers: 4, 5, 8, 16, 20, 36, 38, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47.

C. Asked by Master of Master
10, 11, 14, 22, 30, 42.

II. Statements by Master

A. Verbal: 3, 6, 12, 17, 20, 25, 26, 28, 31, 34, 44, 46.

B. Non-Verbal: 3, 6.

III. Stories
2, 3, 5, 6, II, 13, 14, 23, 28, 31, 32, 39, 42, 46, 47, 48.

 

TABLE 2

A. Resulting in Enlightenment: 2, 3, 7, 15, 19, 28, 41.
B. Exemplifying Enlightenment: 10, 11, 14, 40.
C. Shows One Party's Enlightenment: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48.
D. Shows One Party's Unenlightenment: 11, 14, 26.

 

From the repetition of numbers in both tables, we can see that many of the koans, not just those designated as "stories", contain two or more parts. One koan may ask several questions of different types, or of the same type, and questions may be mixed with statements. In Table I we can see that, in general, the most common form of the koan in the Mu Mon Kwan is the question, and that the most common forms of questions are either those asked by anonymous pupils or by Masters where the answer is not given. Statements given by Masters are next in occurrence with verbal statements being far more prevalent than non-verbal statements. We can also see that koans in the form of stories constitute one-third of those given. The numerical differences between the four most common types are so slight, and the differences between these four and the rest of the types are so great, that we can safely conclude that the most common, and therefore, most important types of koans for our analysis are 1. Stories, 2. Verbal Statements, 3. Questions Asked by Anonymous Pupils and 4. Questions Without Answers. We can assume that the story koans are merely literary devices and have no intrinsic value due to their form. Of more importance, are the questions and statements contained in the stories, so we will concentrate our attention on these.

In the first group, questions by anonymous pupils, we see that two types of questions are asked. The first type is rather simple, as would be asked by a novice 'monk. In koan 7, a novice asks "Will you please instruct me, master?" In koans 18, 21 and 33, the Master is asked "What is Buddha?" And in koan 37 the question is, "What is the meaning of Bodhidharma's coming to the Wiest?" The second type of question indicates a more advanced level of achievement in which the fine points of doctrine are puzzling students. These are such things as; "Has a dog Buddha Nature or not?" (1), "Since both speech and silence are concerned either with affirmation or negation, how can we avoid violating (the way in which Truth manifests as such)?" (24), or "Is there any teaching which you have not yet preached to others?" (27). The important thing to note here is that the answers given to both types of questions are basically the same. When asked "What is Buddha?" the Masters reply, "Three catties of hemp" (18), "A dirt-cleaner" (21) or "There is no mind, no Buddha" (33). When asked if there is any other teaching, Master Nansen replied, "Yes.... It is neither mind, nor Buddha, nor a thing" (27). When asked about the problems inherent in speech and silence, Master Fuketsu replied, "I always think of the view of the south river in March, when birds are singing and flowers are at their 'best" (24). From this we can conclude that these koans tell the student that enlightenment does not depend on the type of question asked, nor one's proficiency with doctrines or sayings of the Masters; rather, enlightenment depends on one's ability to perceive that to which the Master's answer points. The monk in koan 24 who asked the complex question about speech and silence was shown to be a fool by the Master, while the novice in koan 7 was immediately 'enlightened after his simple request for instruction. This teaches the students that they should not dwell on the words of the koan in order to attain enlightenment, but on non-acceptance of conceptualization exhibited by the Master. One does not need to be a scholar in order to divest oneself of conceptualization and dependence on dichotomies. Satori is nonconceptual and non-dual, and cannot be attained until one releases oneself from these errors.

The same types of concepts arc exemplified in the other two types of koans, questions without answers and statements by Masters. In koan 4, Master Wakuan asks, "Why has the barbarian (Bodhidharma) from the western heaven (India) no beard?" This question is not consistent with our conceptualizations because Bodhidharrna was almost always shown, in works of art, with a beard. Koan 46 tells us that the true man should not be content to climb to the top of a hundred-foot pole, but should climb a step above the top of the pole. In koan 38, we are given an illustration, "A water buffalo is going out through a window. Her head, horns and hoofs are through but her tail cannot pass. Why is this?" And the Buddha, in koan 6, tells us after holding up a flower, that, "I have in my hand the doctrine of the right Dharma which is birthless and deathless, the true form of no-form and a great mystery. It is the message of non-dependence upon (words) and letters and is transmitted outside the scriptures". These koans give the student the same message, that satori is not to be found in conceptualizations, and that one must break away from dependence upon conceptions in order to see things "as they really are".

Let us now turn to the classification of Table 2, in order to see the relationship of the koans to enlightenment (satori). We can see that the most common type is C., which shows the enlightened nature of one party in the koan, It is interesting to note that the koan which ends by saying "so and so was then enlightened" is not the most common, Likewise, koans which show the verbal banter of two enlightened persons, and the koans which show unenlightened persons are not the dominant form. From this information, we can conclude that emphasis is not placed on immediate enlightenment after a meeting with a Master, the verbal interplay of those who are enlightened or the condemnation of those who are not enlightened. Rather, the student is told, through the koan, that there are persons who are enlightened and they wish to help those who are not. In this way, immediate enlightenment after a short period of training (which would certainly be rare) was played down, as well as the seemingly boastful interplay of enlightened beings and the rebuking of those who are not yet enlightened. The student was given a goal, which could be attained (the enlightenment of the Masters shows this) but cautioned that this attainment might take a long time. Furthermore, once a person was enlightened, he should not waste time showing off this enlightenment; rather, one should use the insights gained by enlightenment in order to help others gain satori.

Before concluding, I should like to deal with one of the problems mentioned at the first of the paper, i.e., the difficulty or even inappropriateness of trying to analyze koans, I said that, according to Buddhists, a koan "cannot be understood by logic ... it cannot be measured by reason" 17 . If, as we have seen, koans reject conceptualization and seem to defy logic and reason; how can we hope to analyze them? The problem here is a methodological one, involving the dispute between the adherent to a particular religious tradition and an outside interpreter. As a religious device, the koan cannot be interpreted, this would lead to the error of intellection 18 , of trying to find the truth in the words and concepts of the koan rather than viewing the koan as a "tile with which to knock at the gate (of reality)" 19 . This attitude towards koans is suitable for Zennists; however, for non-Zennists trying to understand the purpose and function of koans, this attitude is not suitable. The historian of religions should not be interested in gaining satori through the academic study of koans: if this were the case, then, as we have seen, they would fall into the error of intellection. The purpose of the historian of religions should be to achieve an understanding of the various components of a religious system in order to appreciate that system as a whole, and then (possibly) compare it with other systems. The analysis presented here attempts to fulfill that purpose. Not to understand these koans for the sake of personal enlightenment; rather, to gain an understanding of how Zen Buddhists utilized the koan system in order to enlighten themselves. In other words, to find the function of the koan system as a means to achieve a religious goal - enlightenment. Thus, one can justify such an analysis for an historian of religions while one cannot justify it for a Zennist, With this in mind, let us look at what conclusions can be drawn from our analysis.

Conclusion

From the information gained by the classification shown in Table I, we have seen that, although the form and content of the various koans in the Mu Mon Kwan differs greatly, the koans all seem to carry the same message to the Zennist. That is, that the way to satori is not through dependence upon words, even if they be words of the Buddha or past Masters; however, one should not reject words, for, imperfect as they are, they are the only means we have of attaining enlightenment. They should use the words and ideas contained in the koans to reach satori, but they should never confuse the two. Conceptualizations, words, logic and reason are means whereby one attains enlightenment, but they must not be equated 'With enlightenment. "The koan is useful as long as the mental doors are closed, but when they are opened it may be forgotten" 20 . We have seen from the structure of the koans that a question, no matter how skillfully asked, will be met with a seeming absurdity or contradiction as long as the student still holds on to conceptualizations. This idea is communicated to the student by means of the attitude exemplified in the koans, If this were bluntly stated, the student would merely accept it as a fact, an entity to be memorized and handed down. By means of the koan, Zen Masters are able to transmit this message to their pupils in such a way that they might realize the truth for themselves rather than relying on someone else's realization. The religious attitude of Zen is thus transmitted by means of the koans, while at the same time teaching the student not to dwell on the words or actions used. The message of the Buddha is very subtle, and requires a very subtle means of communication.

We have also seen that, according to the information gathered by the second classification system, Table 2, the end product of enlightenment is the transmission of enlightenment to others. The enlightenment of one being is useless without the enlightenment of all beings. The vast majority of koans in the Mu Mon Kwan show that satori can be achieved, and that it should be exhibited, not in the condemnation of those who are not yet enlightened, but in the actions and attitudes of the Masters who have reached satori. The koans also show that quick enlightenment is not the usual case, rather, one must work hard to break the bonds of conceptualization in order to see the "right Dharma which is birthless and deathless, the true form of no-form and a great mystery" 21 . The koans we have examined thus serve the function of correcting the two errors of intellection and quietude. They use words and actions to show that words and actions are conceptualizations which should be understood as such in order for one to attain enlightenment.

 

1) Ruth F. Sasaki, "The History of the Koan in Rinzai (Lin-Chi) Zen".
The Zen Koan: Its History and Use in Rinzai Zen. Isshu Miura and Ruth
F. Sasaki, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1965 p. 5.
2) D. T. Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism (Second Series), ed. C. Humphreys,
New York: Samuel Weiser Inc., 1970, p. 93.
3) Ibid., p. 108.
4) Mumon Ekai, "The Mu Mon Kwan", trans. Sohaku Ogata, in Zen for
the West. S. Ogata, New York: Dial Press, 1959, p. 91.
5) Sasaki, p. s.
6) Claude Levi-Strauss, "The Structural Study of Myth", Structural Anthropology,
Garden City: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1967, p. 206.
7) Suzuki, p. 90·
8) Ibid., p. 84.
9) Sasaki, p. 10.
10) Suzuki, p. 90.
11) Ibid., pp. 90-1 I I.
12) Mumon., p. 9I.
13) Ibid
14) Suzuki., pp. 87-89.
15) Sasaki., pp. 47-49.
16) Murnon., PP· 76-77.
17) See p. 66, above.
18) See Suzuki., pp. 91-93.
19) See Mumon., p. 91.
20) Suzuki., p. 98.
21) Mumon., p. 98.

 

 

 

External links

Katsuki Sekida (trans.)
Two Zen classics : the Gateless gate and the Blue cliff records / translated with commentaries by Katsuki Sekida ; edited and introduced by A. V. Grimstone. Boston, Mass. : Shambhala : 2005. 413 p. Originally published: Weatherhill, 1995.
http://www.questia.com/read/85655969/two-zen-classics-mumonkan-and-hekiganroku
http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/zen/mumonkan.htm
http://www.energyenhancement.org/zen/Zen-Buddhism-Mumonkan-Wu-Wen-Kuan-Katsuki-Sekida-The-Gateless-Gate.html

The same in bilingual edition, but cases 1 to 24 only:
English Translation by late Zen master Katsuki Sekida (Two Zen Classics, pp. 26-137.) Modified by JOKB (Japanese-style expressions replaced by Chinese-style). The Chinese and Japanese texts in this web site are taken from the book titled Wumenkan, published in Japan by Iwanami Bunkō.
http://www.buddhism.org/board/read.cgi?board=Seon&nnew=2&y_number=54
http://www.buddhism.org/board/read.cgi?board=Seon&y_number=54&nnew=1


Gregory Wonderwheel (trans.)
The Gateless Checkpoint of the Zen Lineage,
禅宗無門關 Chan Zong Wumen Guan (J. Zen Shu Mumonkan)
By Wumen Huikai (1183-1260, J. Mumon Ekai)
Translated by Gregory Wonderwheel © 2007-2008
This translation is based on the 1246 manuscript by Anwan Zhushi
http://home.pon.net/wildrose/gateless.htm



Stefano Mui Barragato
(1930-2010)
Reflections on the forty-eight cases of the Wumenkuan
http://www.treetopzencenter.org/Reflections%20on%20the%20Wumenkuan.pdf


By the Wanderling
Comments on the Mumonkan. Presented by the Wanderling
http://www.angelfire.com/electonic/awakening101/mumonkan.html
http://www.buddhism.org/board/read.cgi?board=Seon&nnew=2&y_number=53


About the Wu-Men Kuan koans
Edited by Dr T. Matthew Ciolek
http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/ZenPages/Koans-WMK.html

 

 

Paper-publications

"The Mu Mon Kwan, The Gateless Barrier to Zen Experience," translated by 緒方宗博 Sohaku Ogata,
in: Zen for the West by Sohaku Ogata (London: Rider & Company, for the Buddhist Society, London, 1959), pp. 78-133.

Aitken, Robert, trans. The Gateless Barrier: The Wu-Men Kuan (Mumonkan). New York: North Point Press. 1990.

Shibayama Zenkei (1894-1974): The Gateless Barrier: Zen Comments on the Mumonkan, Boston : Shambhala, 2000.
Originally published: Zen comments on the Mumonkan. New York : Harper &​ Row, 1974.

No barrier: unlocking the Zen koan: a new translation of the Zen classic Wumenguan [Mumonkan] /​ [by Wumen Huikai]; translated from the Chinese and commentary by Thomas Cleary. London: Aquarian/​Thorsons, 1993. xxiii, 213 p.

Albert Low, The World a Gateway: Commentaries on the Mumonkan, Boston: Charles Tuttle, 1995.

Three Chan classics : The recorded sayings of Linji. Wumen's gate. The faith-mind maxim. Translated By J. C. Cleary. Berkeley, Calif. : Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 1999. xi, 136 p. BDK English Tripiṭaka

Das Wu-Men-Kuan, oder "Der Pass ohne Tor," ubersetzt und erklart von Heinrich Dumoulin, S. J. (Tokyo: Sophia University Press [Jochi Daigaku], 1953), 64 pages. A painstaking German translation with copious footnotes, interpretations of the meaning of each koan, and an interesting introduction, in which will be found the biography of Wu-men Hui-k'ai and also that of his Japanese disciple, Shinchi Kakushin (心地覺心 1207-1298), who first brought the book to Japan, The translator's interpretations of the import of the Koans are questionable.

La passe sans porte : Les énigmes des grands maîtres zen de Huikai Wumen
traduit du chinois, présenté et annoté par Catherine Despeux
Éd. Points. 2014, 272 p.

Eine Namens- und Konkordanz-Tabelle
http://www.mb-schiekel.de/meister.htm
http://www.mb-schiekel.de/meister.pdf