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螢山紹瑾 Keizan Jōkin (1268–1325)

常濟大師 Jōsai Daishi: Great Master Jōsai, honorific title given Keizan by the Meiji emperor in the late 19th century. Jōsai means "eternally" (jō 常) "benefitting, "saving," or "ferrying across" (sai 濟).

傳光錄
(Rōmaji:) Denkō-roku
(English:) The Record of the Transmission of the Light [53 kōans]
(Magyar:) A fény átadása

坐禅用心記 / 坐禪用心記
(Rōmaji:) Zazen yōjinki
(English:)
Advice on the Practice of Zazen
(Magyar:)
Mire figyeljünk zazenben

This “Advice on the Practice of Zazen” was written by Keizan Jōkin, of the Japanese Sōtō School of Zen, who is also known by the honorific title of ‘Great Founder' (Taiso) and was the founder of Sōji-ji Temple. It discusses the purpose and significance of Zazen as well as giving concrete advice for the actual practice of Zazen, and is an indispensable work for all monks of the Sōtō School.
It deals with extremely practical matters such as the importance of moderation in eating for regulating one's physical condition, and strictly admonishes against wearing extravagant or soiled clothing and indulging in such recreational activities as singing, dancing, and music. In addition, it also goes on to make clear that Zazen as practiced in the Sōtō School does not correspond to only ‘meditation' as included in the ‘Three Disciplines' of precepts, meditation and wisdom, but embraces in fact all three of these disciplines.

Keizan Jōkin 瑩山紹瑾 (1268-1325). One of the "two ancestors" of the present Soto school. A fourth generation dharma heir of Dōgen, the founder of the Soto lineage in Japan. Keizan became a monk at Eiheiji at age 13. At age 32 he received dharma transmission from Tettsū Gikai 徹通義介 (1219-1309), an heir to Dōgen's lineage who had converted Daijō Monastery (Daijōji 大乘寺) in Kaga (modern Ishikawa Prefecture) into a Chinese style Zen monastery. Keizan later succeeded Gikai as abbot of Daijōji and turned it into a major center of Soto Zen proselytizing in the region. He also founded or rebuilt a number of other monasteries that were to become instrumental in the spread of Soto Zen all around Japan: Jōjūji 淨住寺, Yōkōji 永光寺, and Sōjiji 總持寺." The great majority of Soto clergy in Japan today trace their lineages of dharma inheritance back to Keizan (and through him to Dōgen). Keizan's most influential writings include: Admonitions for Zazen (Zazen yōjin ki 坐禪用心記), Record of the Transmission of the Light (Denkōroku 傳光録), and Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan shingi 瑩山清規).

Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan shingi 瑩山清規). T 82.423c-451c. A text, originally entitled Ritual Procedures for Tōkoku Mountain Yōkō Zen Monastery in Nō Province (Nōshū tōkokuzan yōkōzenji gyōji shidai 能州洞谷山永光禪寺行事次), written by the abbot Keizan Jōkin in 1324. Keizan seems to have compiled it as a handbook of ritual events and liturgical texts for use in the single monastery named in its title. The text contains a detailed calendar of daily, monthly, and annual observances that the monks of Yōkō Zen Monastery were to engage in, and the dedications of merit (ekō 囘向) statements of purpose (sho 疏) that they were to chant on those various occasions. It thus had the basic functions of a schedule of activities and a liturgical manual, as well as laying out a few rules and ritual procedures for monastic officers. It shared those features with the Rules of Purity for the Huanzhu Hermitage (Genjūan shingi 幻住菴清規), a manual written in 1317 by the eminent Zen master Chūhō Myōhon (C. Zhongfen Mingben 中峰明本; 1263–1323). Keizan probably modeled his text on that or some other similarly organized work imported from Yuan dynasty China. In 1678, the monk Gesshū Sōko 月舟宗胡 (1618-1696) and his disciple Manzan Dōhaku 卍山道白 (1636-1715), two monks active in the movement to reform Soto Zen by "restoring the old" (fukko 復古) modes of practice originally implemented by Dōgen and Keizan, took the set of rules written for Yōkōji and published them for the first time under the title of Reverend Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan oshō shingi 瑩山和尚清規). From that point on the text became a standard reference work used in many Soto Zen monasteries. In its organization and contents, Keizan's Rules of Purity is the direct predecessor of the present Standard Obsevances of the Soto Zen School (Sōtōshū gyōji kihan 曹洞宗行持規範).


Tartalom

Contents

坐禅用心記 Zazen Yojinki
Feljegyzés ahhoz,
hogyan legyünk körültekintőek a zazenben

Fordította: Gáncs Nikolasz

傳光錄 Denkō-roku
A lámpás átadása
(Szemelvények)
Fordította:
Szigeti György
in: Naparcú Buddha : a zen szellemisége és gyakorlata; [Budapest] : A Tan Kapuja : Vizsom, [2005], 186 p.
(I. fejezet / 2. Tanka Sidzsun, 9. Singecu Szeirjó, 13. Dóan Kansi, 18. Dógen, 52. Rjódzan Enkan, 82. Szecsó Csikan, 92. Daruma alfejezetek)

PDF: Tiszteletreméltó Bódaidaruma (Bódhidharma)
Keizan: Denkoroku: A Fény Átadásnak Feljegyzései, 28. fejezet

PDF: Tiszteletreméltó Yakusan Igen (Yaoshan Weiyan)
Keizan: Denkoroku: A Fény Átadásnak Feljegyzései, 36. fejezet

Keizan Jokin (1268-1325) versei
Fordította:
Hadházi Zsolt

坐禅用心記 Zazen jinki

PDF: Instructions on How to Do Pure Meditation
Translated by Hubert Nearman

Notes on What to be Aware of in Zazen
Translated by Anzan Hoshin & Yasuda Joshu Dainen

Points to Watch in Zazen
Translated by Reiho Masunaga

What to be Aware of in Zazen
Translated by Thomas Cleary

Points to keep in mind when practicing zazen
Copyright © Antaiji

PDF: Advice on the Practice of Zazen
Translated by Steven Heine

In: BDK Tripitaka Translation Series: Zen Texts, 2005, pp. 257ff.

三根坐禅説 Sankon Zazen-setsu

Three Kinds of Zen Practitioners
Translated by Anzan Hoshin & Yasuda Joshu Dainen

The Three Personalities in Training
Translated by Jiyu Kennett

Theory of Zazen for Three Personality Types
Translated by Masunaga Reiho

傳光錄 Denkō-roku

PDF: Denkōroku
(Transmission of Light / Weitergabe des Lichts)
Cases and Verses / Fälle und Verse
(English-German Edition / englisch-deutsche Fassung)

PDF: The Oral Transmissions of the 52 Soto Zen Buddhist Ancestors
An Overview by Marilynn Hughes

PDF: Keizan Study Material for the 2010 National Conference of The Soto Zen Buddhist Association

PDF: Great Master Keizan Jōkin: His Life and Legacy
by Berwyn Watson


Keizan Zenji: The Denkōroku or The Record of the Transmission of the Light, Shasta Abbey, Mount Shasta, 1993.

The Denkoroku: or The Record of the Transmission of the Light, by Keizan Zenji, translated by Rev. Hubert Nearman, Shasta Abbey Press, 2001.


Denkoroku; The Record of the Transmission of the Light by Zen Master Keizan Jokin, Translator Reverend Hubert Nearman, OBC Shasta Abbey Press, Mount Shasta, California, 2003.
Online: http://www.shastaabbey.org/teachings-publications_denkoroku.html

The following sections are available for individual download in PDF:
Denkoroku pp.i-iii
Denkoroku pp.iv-xx
Denkoroku pp.1-98
Denkoroku pp.99-225
Denkoroku pp.226-308

Transmission of Light, Zen in the Art of Enlightenment by Zen Master Keizan, Translated and introduction by Thomas Cleary, North Point Press, San Francisco, 1990; Shambala, 2002.

Francis H. Cook, The Record of Transmitting the Light, Center Publications, 1991

Denkoroku: the record of transmission of light, translated by Kosen Nishiyama (西山廣宣 Nishiyama Kōsen, 1939-), Tokyo : Japan Publication (distributor), c1994, 266 p.

The Record of Transmitting the Light: Zen Master Keizan's Denkoroku, Translated and introduction by Francis Dojun Cook, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2003

Denkoroku: Record of the Transmission of Luminosity, Chapter 29 : Bodhidharma
translated by Anzan Hoshin roshi and Yasuda Joshu Dainen zenji
http://wwzc.org/dharma-text/denkoroku-record-transmission-luminosity-29

Great Master Keizan Jōkin: His Life and Legacy by Rev. Berwyn Watson
http://journal.obcon.org/files/2012/02/Berwyn-Keizan.pdf

 

Keizan kép egy szélessége

PDF: Denkōroku
(Transmission of Light / Weitergabe des Lichts)
Cases and Verses / Fälle und Verse
(English-German Edition / englisch-deutsche Fassung)
The Sanbô-Kyôdan Society

PDF: Keizan Study Material for the 2010 National Conference of The Soto Zen Buddhist Association
http://stonecreekzencenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Keizan_Study.pdf

 

 

 

坐禅用心記 Zazen yōjinki

PDF: Instructions on How to Do Pure Meditation
Translated by Hubert Nearman

 

 

ZAZEN-YÔJINKI
Points to keep in mind when practicing zazen
Copyright © Antaiji
http://antaiji.dogen-zen.de/eng/zzyk.shtml

Zazen means to clarify the mind-ground and dwell comfortably in your actual nature. This is called revealing yourself and manifesting the original-ground.

In zazen both body and mind drop off. Zazen is far beyond the form of sitting or lying down. Free from considerations of good and evil, zazen transcends distinctions between ordinary people and sages, it goes far beyond judgements of deluded or enlightened. Zazen includes no boundary between sentient beings and buddha. Therefore put aside all affairs, and let go of all associations. Do nothing at all. The six senses produce nothing.

What is this? Its name is unknown. It cannot be called "body", it cannot be called "mind". Trying to think of it, the thought vanishes. Trying to speak of it, words die. It is like a fool, an idiot. It is as high as a mountain, deep as the ocean. Without peak or depths, its brilliance is unthinkable, it shows itself silently. Between sky and earth, only this whole body is seen.

This one is without comparison - he has completely died. Eyes clear, he stands nowhere. Where is there any dust? What can obstruct such a one?

Clear water has no back or front, space has no inside or outside. Completely clear, its own luminosity shines before form and emptiness were fabricated. Objects of mind and mind itself have no place to exist.

This has always already been so but it is still without a name. The the third patriarch, great teacher, temporarily called it "mind", and the venerable Nagarjuna once called it "body". Enlightened essence and form, giving rise to the bodies of all the Buddhas, it has no "more" or "less" about it.

This is symbolized by the full moon but it is this mind which is enlightenment itself. The luminosity of this mind shines throughout the past and brightens as the present. Nagarjuna used this subtle symbol for the samadhi of all the Buddhas but this mind is signless, non-dual, and differences between forms are only apparent.

Just mind, just body. Difference and sameness miss the point. Body arises in mind and, when the body arises, they appear to be distinguished. When one wave arises, a thousand waves follow; the moment a single mental fabrication arises, numberless things appear. So the four elements and five aggregates mesh, four limbs and five senses appear and on and on until the thirty-six body parts and the twelve-fold chain of interdependant emergence. Once fabrication arises, it develops continuity but it still only exists through the piling up of myriad dharmas.

The mind is like the ocean waters, the body like the waves. There are no waves without water and no water without waves; water and waves are not separate, motion and stillness are not different. So it is said, "A person comes and goes, lives and dies, as the imperishable body of the four elements and five aggregates."

Now, zazen is entering directly into the ocean of buddha-nature and manifesting the body of the Buddha. The pure and clear mind is actualized in the present moment; the original light shines everywhere. The water in the ocean neither increases nor decreases, and the waves never cease. Buddhas have appeared in this world for the sake of the one great matter; to show the wisdom and insight of the Buddha to all living beings and to make their entry possible. For this, there is a peaceful and pure way: zazen. This is nothing but the samadhi, in which all buddhas receive and use themselves as buddhas (jijuyu-zanmai). It is also called the king of samadhis. If you dwell in this samadhi for even a short time, the mind-ground will be directly clarified. You should know that this is the true gate of the buddha-way.

If you wish to clarify the mind-ground, you should relinquish your various types of limited knowledge and understanding. Throw away both worldly affairs and buddha-dharma. Eliminate all delusive emotions. When the true mind of the sole reality is manifest, the clouds of delusion will clear away and the moon of the mind will shine brightly.

The Buddha said, "Listening and thinking are like being outside of the gate; zazen is returning home and sitting in peace." How true this is! When we are listening and thinking, the various views have not been put to rest and the mind is still running over. Therefore other activities are like being outside of the gate. Zazen alone brings everything to rest and, flowing freely, reaches everywhere. So zazen is like returning home and sitting in peace.

The delusions of the five-obstructions all arise out of basic ignorance. Being ignorant means not clarifying youraelf. To practice zazen is to throw light on yourself. Even though the five obstructions are eliminated, if basic ignorance is not eliminated, you are not a buddha-ancestor. If you wish to eliminate basic ignorance, zazen practice of the way is the key.

An ancient master said, "When delusive thoughts cease, tranquility arises; when tranquility arises, wisdom appears; when wisdom appears, reality reveals itself." If you want to eliminate delusive thoughts, you should cease to discriminate between good and evil. Give up all affairs with which you are involved; do not occupy your mind with any concerns nor become physically engaged in any activity. This is the primary point to bear in mind. When delusive objects disappear, delusive mind falls away.

When delusive mind falls away, the unchanging reality manifests itself and we are always clearly aware. It is not extinction; it is not activity. Therefore, you should avoid engaging in any arts or crafts, medicine or fortune-telling. Needless to say, you should stay away from music and dancing, arguing and meaningless discussions, fame and personal profit. While composing poetry can be a way to purify one's mind, do not be fond of it. Give up writing and calligraphy. This is the fine precedent set by practitioners of the Way. This is essential for harmonizing the mind.

Wear neither luxurious clothing nor dirty rags. Luxurious clothing gives rise to greed and may also arouse fear of theft. Thus, they are a hindrance for a practitioner of the way. Even if someone offers them to you, it is the excellent tradition of the masters to refuse them. If you already own luxurious clothes, do not keep them. Even if these clothes are stolen, do not chase after or regret its loss. Old or dirty clothes should be washed and mended; clean them thoroughly before wearing them. If you do not clean them, they will cause you to become chilled and sick. This will be a hindrance to your practice. Although we should not be anxious about bodily life, insufficient clothing, insufficient food, and insufficient sleep are called the three insufficiencies and will cause our practice to suffer.

Do not eat anything alive, hard, or spoiled. Such impure foods will make your belly churn and cause heat and discomfort of bodymind, making your sitting difficult. Do not indulge in fine foods. It is not only bad for your body and mind, but also shows you are not yet free from greed. Eat just enough food to support your life and do not be fond of its taste. If you sit after eating too much, you will get sick. Wait for a while before sitting after eating big or small meals. Monks must be moderate in eating and hold their portions to two-thirds of what they can eat. All healthy foods, sesame, wild yams and so on, can be eaten. Essentially, you should harmonize bodymind.

When you are sitting in zazen, do not prop yourself up against a wall, meditation brace, or screen. Also, do not sit in windy places or high, exposed places as this can cause illness. Sometimes your body may feel hot or cold, rough or smooth, stiff or loose, heavy or light, or astonishingly wide-awake. Such sensations are caused by a disharmony of mind and breath. You should regulate your breathing as follows: open your mouth for a little while, letting long breaths be long and short breaths be short, and harmonize it gradually. Follow your breath for a while; when awareness comes, your breathing will be naturally harmonized. After that, breathe naturally through your nose.

Your mind may feel as though it is sinking or floating, dull or sharp, or as though you can see outside the room, inside your body, or the body of buddhas or bodhisattvas. Sometimes, you may feel as though you have wisdom and can understand the sutras or commentaries thoroughly. These unusual and strange conditions are all sicknesses that occur when the mind and breath are not in harmony. When you have this kind of sickness, settle your mind on your feet. When you feel dull, place your mind on your hairline (three inches above the center of the eyebrows) or between your eyes. When your mind is distracted, place it on the tip of your nose or on your lower abdomen, one and a half inches below the navel (tanden). Usually, place your mind on the left palm during sitting. When you sit for a long time, even though you do not try to calm your mind, it will, of its own accord, be free of distraction.

Also, although the ancient teachings are the traditional instructions for illuminating the mind, do not read, write, or listen to them too much. Running to excess scatters the mind. Generally, anything that wears out bodymind causes illness.

Do not sit where there are fires, floods, high winds, thieves; by the ocean, near bars, brothels, where widows or virgins live, or near places where courtesans play music. Do not live near kings, ministers, rich and powerful families, or people who have many desires, who seek after fame, or who like to argue meaninglessly.

Although grand Buddhist ceremonies or the building of large temples are very good things, people who devote themselves to zazen should not be involved in such activities. Do not be fond of preaching the Dharma as this leads to distraction and scattering.

Do not be delighted by large assemblies; nor covet disciples. Do not practice and study too many things. Do not sit where it is too bright or too dark, too cold or too hot; nor should you sit where idle pleasure-seekers and harlots live. Stay in a monastery where you have a good teacher and fellow practitioners. Or reside in the deep mountains or glens. A good place to practice walking meditation is where there is clear water and green mountains. A good place for purifying the mind is by a stream or under a tree. Contemplate impermanence; do not forget it. This will encourage you to seek the way.

You should spread a mat thick enough for comfortable sitting. The place for practice should be clean. Always burn incense and offer flowers to the guardians of the dharma, the buddhas and bodhisattvas, who secretly protect your practice. If you enshrine a statue of a buddha, bodhisattva, or an arhat, no demons can tempt you.

Remain always compassionate, and dedicate the limitless virtue of zazen to all living beings. Do not be arrogant; do not be proud of yourself and of your understanding of dharma. Being arrogant is the way of outsiders and ignorant people.

Vow to cut off all delusions and realize enlightenment. Just sit without doing anything. This is the essence of the practice of zazen. Always wash your eyes and feet, keep your body and mind at ease and tranquil, and maintain a proper demeanor. Throw away worldly sentiments, yet do not attach yourself to a sublime feeling of the way.

Though you should not begrudge anyone the dharma, do not preach it unless you are asked. Even if someone asks, keep silent three times; if the person still asks you from his or her heart, then teach him or her. Out of ten times you may desire to speak, remain silent for nine; as if mold were growing around your mouth. Be like a folded fan in December, or like a wind-bell hanging in the air, indifferent to the direction of the wind. This is how a person of the Way should be. Do not use the dharma to profit at the expense of others. Do not use the way as a means to make yourself important. These are the most important points to keep in mind.

Zazen is not based upon teaching, practice or realization; instead these three aspects are all contained within it. Measuring realization is based upon some notion of enlightenment - this is not the essence of zazen. Practice is based upon strenuous application - this is not the essence of zazen. Teaching is based upon freeing from evil and cultivating good - this is not the essence of zazen.

Teaching is found in Zen but it is not the usual teaching. Rather, it is a direct pointing, just expressing the way, speaking with the whole body. Such words are without sentences or clauses. Where views end and concept is exhausted, the one word pervades the ten directions without setting up so much as a single hair. This is the true teaching of the buddhas and patriarchs.

Although we speak of "practice", it is not a practice that you can do. That is to say, the body does nothing, the mouth does not recite, the mind doesn't think things over, the six senses are left to their own clarity and unaffected. So this is not the sixteen stage practice of the hearers. Nor is it the practice of understanding the twelve factors of inter-dependent emergence of those whose practice is founded upon isolation. Nor is it the six perfections within numberless activities of the bodhisattvas. It is without struggle at all so is called awakening or enlightenment. Just rest in the samadhi in which all of the buddhas receive and use themselves as buddhas (jijuyu-zanmai), wandering playfully in the four practices of peace and bliss of those open to openness. This is the profound and inconceivable practice of buddhas and patriarchs.

Although we speak of realization, this realization does not hold to itself as being "realization". This is practice of the supreme samadhi which is the knowing of unborn, unobstructed, and spontaneously arising awareness. It is the door of luminosity which opens out onto the realization of the Buddha, born through the practice of the great ease. This goes beyond the patterns of holy and profane, goes beyond confusion and wisdom. This is the realization of unsurpassed enlightenment as our own nature.

Zazen is also not based upon discipline, practice, or wisdom. These three are all contained within it.

Discipline is usually understood as ceasing wrong action and eliminating evil. In zazen the whole thing is known to be non-dual. Cast off the numberless concerns and rest free from entangling yourself in the "Buddhist way" or the "worldly way." Leave behind feelings about the path as well as your usual sentiments. When you leave behind all opposites, what can obstruct you? This is the formless discipline of the ground of mind.

Practice usually means unbroken concentration. Zazen is dropping the bodymind, leaving behind confusion and understanding. Unshakeable, without activity, it is not deluded but still like an idiot, a fool. Like a mountain, like the ocean. Without any trace of motion or stillness. This practice is no-practice because it has no object to practice and so is called great practice.

Wisdom is usually understood to be clear discernment. In zazen, all knowledge vanishes of itself. Mind and discrimination are forgotten forever. The wisdom-eye of this body has no discrimination but is clear seeing of the essence of awakening. From the beginning it is free of confusion, cuts off concept, and open and clear luminosity pervades everywhere. This wisdom is no-wisdom; because it is traceless wisdom, it is called great wisdom.

The teaching that the buddhas have presented all throughout their lifetimes are just this discipline, practice, and wisdom. In zazen there is no discipline that is not maintained, no practice that is uncultivated, no wisdom that is unrealized. Conquering the demons of confusion, attaining the way, turning the wheel of the Dharma and returning to tracelessness all arise from the power of this. Supernormal powers and inconceivable activities, emanating light and expounding the teaching- all of these are present in this zazen. Penetrating Zen is zazen.

To practice sitting, find a quiet place and lay down a thick mat. Don't let wind, smoke, rain or dew come in. Keep a clear space with enough room for your knees. Although in ancient times there were those who sat on diamond seats or on large stones for their cushions. The place where you sit should not be too bright in the daytime or too dark at night; it should be warm in winter and cool in summer. That's the key.

Drop mind, intellect and consciousness, leave memory, thinking, and observing alone. Don't try to fabricate Buddha. Don't be concerned with how well or how poorly you think you are doing; just understand that time is as precious as if you were putting out a fire on your head.

The Buddha sat straight, Bodhidharma faced the wall; both were whole-hearted and committed. Sekiso was like a gnarled dead tree. Nyojo warned against sleepy sitting and said, "Just-sitting is all you need. You don't need to make burning incense offerings, meditate upon the names of buddhas, repent, study the scriptures or do recitation rituals."

When you sit, wear the kesa (except in the first and last parts of the night when the daily schedule is not in effect). Don't be careless. The cushion should be about twelve inches thick and thirty-six in circumference. Don't put it under the thighs but only from mid-thigh to the base of the spine. This is how the buddhas and patriarchs have sat. You can sit in the full or half lotus postures. To sit in the full lotus, put the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh. Loosen your robes but keep them in order. Put your right hand on your left heel and your left hand on top of your right, thumbs together and close to the body at the level of the navel. Sit straight without leaning to left or right, front or back. Ears and shoulders, nose and navel should be aligned. Place the tongue on the palate and breathe through the nose. The mouth should be closed. The eyes should be open but not too wide nor too slight. Harmonizing the body in this way, breathe deeply with the mouth once or twice. Sitting steadily, sway the torso seven or eight times in decreasing movements. Sit straight and alert.

Now think of what is without thought. How can you think of it? Be beyond thinking. This is the essence of zazen. Shatter obstacles and become intimate with awakening awareness.

When you want to get up from stillness, put your hands on your knees, sway seven or eight times in increasing movements. Breathe out through the mouth, put your hands to the floor and get up lightly from the seat. Slowly walk, circling to right or left.

If dullness or sleepiness overcome your sitting, move to the body and open the eyes wider, or place attention above the hairline or between your eyebrows. If you are still not fresh, rub the eyes or the body. If that still doesn't wake you, stand up and walk, always clockwise. Once you've gone about a hundred steps you probably won't be sleepy any longer. The way to walk is to take a half step with each breath. Walk without walking, silent and unmoving.

If you still don't feel fresh after doing kinhin, wash your eyes and forehead with cold water. Or chant the "Three Pure Precepts of the Bodhisattvas". Do something; don't just fall asleep. You should be aware of the great matter of birth and death and the swiftness of impermanence. What are you doing sleeping when your eye of the way is still clouded? If dullness and sinking arise repeatedly you should chant, "Habituality is deeply rooted and so I am wrapped in dullness. When will dullness disperse? May the compassion of the buddhas and patriarchs lift this darkness and misery."

If the mind wanders, place attention at the tip of the nose and tanden and count the inhalations and exhalations. If that doesn't stop the scattering, bring up a phrase and keep it in awareness - for example: "What is it that comes thus?" or "When no thought arises, where is affliction? - Mount Sumeru!" or "What is the meaning of Bodhidharma's coming from the West? - The cypress in the garden." Sayings like this that you can't draw any flavour out of are suitable.

If scattering continues, sit and look to that point where the breath ends and the eyes close forever and where the child is not yet conceived, where not a single concept can be produced. When a sense of the two-fold emptiness of self and things appears, scattering will surely rest.

Arising from stillness, carry out activities without hesitation. This moment is the koan. When practice and realization are without complexity then the koan is this present moment. That which is before any trace arises, the scenery on the other side of time's destruction, the activity of all buddhas and patriarchs, is just this one thing.

You should just rest and cease. Be cooled, pass numberless years as this moment. Be cold ashes, a withered tree, an incense burner in an abandoned temple, a piece of unstained silk.

This is my earnest wish.

 

 


Notes on What to be Aware of in Zazen

Translated by Anzan Hoshin & Yasuda Joshu Dainen

1

Sitting is the way to clarify the ground of experiences and to rest at ease in your Actual Nature. This is called "the display of the Original Face" and "revealing the landscape of the basic ground".

Drop through this bodymind and you will be far beyond such forms as sitting or lying down. Beyond considerations of good or bad, transcend any divisions between usual people and sages, pass beyond the boundary between sentient beings and Buddha.

Putting aside all concerns, shed all attachments. Do nothing at all. Don't fabricate any things with the six senses.

Who is this? Its name is unknown; it cannot be called "body", it cannot be called "mind". Trying to think of it, the thought vanishes. Trying to speak of it, words die.

It is like a fool, an idiot. It is as high as a mountain, deep as the ocean. Without peak or depths, its brilliance is unthinkable, it shows itself silently. Between sky and earth, only this whole body is seen.

This one is without compare—he has completely died. Eyes clear, she stands nowhere. Where is there any dust? What can obstruct such a one?

Clear water has no back or front, space has no inside or outside. Completely clear, its own luminosity shines before form and emptiness were fabricated. Objects of mind and mind itself have no place to exist.

This has always already been so but it is still without a name. The great teacher, the Third Ancestor Sengcan temporarily called it "mind", and the Venerable Nagarjuna once called it "body". Enlightened essence and form, giving rise to the bodies of all the Buddhas, it has no "more" or "less" about it.

This is symbolized by the full moon but it is this mind which is enlightenment itself. The luminosity of this mind shines throughout the past and brightens as the present. Nagarjuna used this subtle symbol for the samadhi of all the Buddhas but this mind is signless, non-dual, and differences between forms are only apparent.

Just mind, just body. Difference and sameness miss the point. Body arises in mind and, when the body arises, they appear to be distinguished. When one wave arises, a thousand waves follow; the moment a single mental fabrication arises, numberless things appear. So the four elements and five aggregates mesh, four limbs and five senses appear and on and on until the thirty-six body parts and the twelve-fold chain of interdependant emergence. Once fabrication arises, it develops continuity but it still only exists through the piling up of myriad dharmas.

The mind is like the ocean waters, the body like the waves. There are no waves without water and no water without waves; water and waves are not separate, motion and stillness are not different. So it is said, "A person comes and goes, lives and dies, as the imperishable body of the four elements and five aggregates."

Zazen is going right into the Ocean of Awareness, manifesting the body of all Buddhas. The natural luminosity of mind suddenly reveals itself and the original light is everywhere. There is no increase or decrease in the ocean and the waves never turn back.

2

Thus Buddhas have arisen in this world for the one Great Matter of teaching people the wisdom and insight of Awakening and to give them true entry. For this there is the peaceful, pure practice of sitting. This is the complete practice of self-enjoyment of all the Buddhas. This is the sovereign of all samadhis. Entering this samadhi, the ground of mind is clarified at once. You should know that this is the true gate to the Way of the Buddhas.

If you want to clarify the mind-ground, give up your jumble of limited knowledge and interpretation, cut off thoughts of usualness and holiness, abandon all delusive feelings. When the true mind of reality manifests, the clouds of delusion dissipate and the moon of the mind shines bright.

3

The Buddha said, "Listening and thinking about it are like being shut out by a door. Zazen is like coming home and sitting at ease." This is true! Listening and thinking about it, views have not ceased and the mind is obstructed; this is why it's like being shut out by a door. True sitting puts all things to rest and yet penetrates everywhere. This sitting is like coming home and sitting at ease.

Being afflicted by the five obstructions arises from basic ignorance and ignorance arises from not understanding your own nature. Zazen is understanding your own nature. Even if you were to eliminate the five obstructions, if you haven't eliminated basic ignorance, you have not yet realized yourself as the Buddhas and Awakened Ancestors. If you want to release basic ignorance, the essential key is to sit and practice the Way.

An old master said, "When confusion ceases, clarity arises; when clarity arises, wisdom appears; and when wisdom appears, Reality displays itself."

If you want to cease your confusion, you must cease involvement in thoughts of good or bad. Stop getting caught up in unnecessary affairs. A mind "unoccupied" together with a body "free of activity" is the essential point to remember.

When delusive attachments end, the mind of delusion dies out. When delusion dies out, the Reality that was always the case manifests and you are always clearly aware of it. It is not a matter of extinction or of activity.

4

Avoid getting caught up in arts and crafts, prescribing medicines and fortune-telling. Stay away from songs and dancing, arguing and babbling, fame and gain. Composing poetry can be an aid in clarifying the mind but don't get caught up in it. The same is true for writing and calligraphy. This is the superior precedent for practitioners of the Way and is the best way to harmonize the mind.

Don't wear luxurious clothing or dirty rags. Luxurious clothing gives rise to greed and then the fear that someone will steal something. This is a hindrance to practitioners of the Way. Even if someone offers them to you, to refuse is the excellent tradition from ancient times. If you happen to have luxurious clothing, don't be concerned with it; if it's stolen don't bother to chase after it or regret its loss. Old dirty clothes should be washed and mended; clean them thoroughly before putting them on. If you don't take care of them you could get cold and sick and hinder your practice. Although we shouldn't be too anxious about bodily comforts, inadequate clothing, food and sleep are known as the "three insufficiencies" and will cause our practice to suffer.

Don't eat anything alive, hard, or spoiled. Such impure foods will make your belly churn and cause heat and discomfort of bodymind, making your sitting difficult. Don't indulge in rich foods. Not only is this bad for bodymind, it's just greed. You should eat to promote life so don't fuss about taste. Also, if you sit after eating too much you will feel ill. Whether the meal is large or small, wait a little while before sitting. Monks should be moderate in eating and hold their portions to two-thirds of what they can eat. All healthy foods, sesame, wild yams and so on, can be eaten. Essentially, you should harmonize bodymind.

5

When you are sitting in zazen, do not prop yourself up against a wall, meditation brace, or screen. Also, do not sit in windy places or high, exposed places as this can cause illness.

Sometimes when you are sitting you may feel hot or cold, discomfort or ease, stiff or loose, heavy or light, or sometimes startled. These sensations arise through disharmonies of mind and breath-energy. Harmonize your breath in this way: open your mouth slightly, allow long breaths to be long and short breaths to be short and it will harmonize naturally. Follow it for awhile until a sense of awareness arises and your breath will be natural. After this, continue to breathe through the nose.

The mind may feel as if it were sinking or floating, it may seem dull or sharp. Sometimes you can see outside the room, the insides of the body, the forms of Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. Sometimes you may believe that you have wisdom and now thoroughly understand all the sutras and commentaries. These extraordinary conditions are diseases that arise through disharmony of mind and breath. When this happens, sit placing the mind in the lap. When the mind sinks into dullness, raise attention above your hairline or before your eyes. When the mind scatters into distraction, place attention at the tip of the nose or at the tanden. After this rest attention in the left palm. Sit for a long time and do not struggle to calm the mind and it will naturally be free of distraction.

Although the ancient Teachings are a long-standing means to clarify the mind, do not read, write about, or listen to them obsessively because such excess only scatters the mind.

Generally, anything that wears out bodymind causes illness. Don't sit where there are fires, floods, or bandits, by the ocean, near bars, brothels, where widows or virgins live, or near where courtesans sing and play music. Don't live near kings, ministers, powerful or rich families, people with many desires, those who crave name and fame, or those who like to argue meaninglessly. Although large Buddhist ceremonials and the construction of large temples might be good things, one who is committed to practice should not get involved.

Don't be fond of preaching the Dharma as this leads to distraction and scattering. Don't be delighted by huge assemblies or run after disciples. Don't try to study and practice many different things.

Do not sit where it is too bright or too dark, too cold or too hot. Do not sit where pleasure-seekers or whores live. Go and stay in a monastery where there is a true teacher. Go deep into the mountains and valleys. Practice kinhin by clear waters and verdant mountains. Clear the mind by a stream or under a tree. Observe impermanence without fail and you will keep the mind that enters the Way.

The mat should be well-padded so that you can sit comfortably. The practice place should always be kept clean. Burn incense and offer flowers to the Dharma Protectors, the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and your practice will be protected. Put a statue of a Buddha, Bodhisattva or arhat on the altar and demons of distraction will not overwhelm you.

Remain always in Great Compassion and dedicate the limitless power of zazen to all living beings.

Do not become arrogant, conceited, or proud of your understanding of the Teachings; that is the way of those outside of the Way and of usual people. Maintain the vow to end afflictions, the vow to realise Awakening and just sit. Do nothing at all. This is the way to study Zen.

Wash your eyes and feet, keep bodymind at ease and deportment in harmony. Shed worldly sentiments and do not become attached to sublime feelings about the Way. Though you should not begrudge the Teachings, do not speak of it unless you are asked. If someone asks, keep silent three times; if still they ask from their heart, then give the Teachings. If you wish to speak ten times, keep quiet nine; it's as if moss grew over your mouth or like a fan in winter. A wind-bell hanging in the air, indifferent to the direction of the wind—this is how people of the Way are.

Do not use the Dharma for your own profit. Do not use the Way to try to make yourself important. This is the most important point to remember.

6

Zazen is not based upon teaching, practice or realization; instead these three aspects are all contained within it. Measuring realization is based upon some notion of enlightenment—this is not the essence of zazen. Practice is based upon strenuous application—this is not the essence of zazen. Teaching is based upon freeing from evil and cultivating good—this is not the essence of zazen.

Teaching is found in Zen but it is not the usual teaching. Rather, it is a direct pointing, just expressing the Way, speaking with the whole body. Such words are without sentences or clauses. Where views end and concept is exhausted, the one word pervades the ten directions without setting up so much as a single hair. This is the true Teaching of the Buddhas and Awakened Ancestors.

Although we speak of "practice", it is not a practice that you can do. That is to say, the body does nothing, the mouth does not recite, the mind doesn't think things over, the six senses are left to their own clarity and unaffected. So this is not the sixteen stage practice of the hearers [the path of insight or darsanamarga into the four noble truths at four different levels]. Nor is it the practice of understanding the twelve nidanas of inter-dependent emergence of those whose practice is founded upon isolation. Nor is it the six perfections within numberless activities of the Bodhisattvas. It is without struggle at all so is called Awakening or enlightenment. Just rest in the Self-enjoyment Samadhi of all the Buddhas, wandering playfully in the four practices of peace and bliss of those open to Openness. This is the profound and inconceivable practice of Buddhas and Awakened Ancestors.

Although we speak of realization, this realization does not hold to itself as being "realization". This is practice of the supreme samadhi which is the knowing of unborn, unobstructed, and spontaneously arising Awareness. It is the door of luminosity which opens out onto the realization of Those Who Come Thus, born through the practice of the great ease. This goes beyond the patterns of holy and profane, goes beyond confusion and wisdom. This is the realization of unsurpassed enlightenment as our own nature.

Zazen is also not based upon discipline, practice, or wisdom. These three are all contained within it.

Discipline is usually understood as ceasing wrong action and eliminating evil. In zazen the whole thing is known to be non-dual. Cast off the numberless concerns and rest free from entangling yourself in the "Buddhist Way" or the "worldly way." Leave behind feelings about the path as well as your usual sentiments. When you leave behind all opposites, what can obstruct you? This is the formless discipline of the ground of mind.

Practice usually means unbroken concentration. Zazen is dropping the bodymind, leaving behind confusion and understanding. Unshakeable, without activity, it is not deluded but still like an idiot, a fool. Like a mountain, like the ocean. Without any trace of motion or stillness. This practice is no-practice because it has no object to practice and so is called great practice.

Wisdom is usually understood to be clear discernment. In zazen, all knowledge vanishes of itself. Mind and discrimination are forgotten forever. The wisdom-eye of this body has no discrimination but is clear seeing of the essence of Awakening. From the beginning it is free of confusion, cuts off concept, and open and clear luminosity pervades everywhere. This wisdom is no-wisdom; because it is traceless wisdom, it is called great wisdom.

The Teaching that the Buddhas have presented all throughout their lifetimes are just this discipline, practice, and wisdom. In zazen there is no discipline that is not maintained, no practice that is uncultivated, no wisdom that is unrealized. Conquering the demons of confusion, attaining the Way, turning the wheel of the Dharma and returning to tracelessness all arise from the power of this. Siddhis and inconceivable activities, emanating luminosity and proclaiming the Teachings—all of these are present in this zazen. Penetrating Zen is zazen.

7

To practice sitting, find a quiet place and lay down a thick mat. Don't let wind, smoke, rain or dew come in. Keep a clear space with enough room for your knees. Although in ancient times there were those who sat on diamond seats or on large stones for their cushions. The place where you sit should not be too bright in the daytime or too dark at night; it should be warm in winter and cool in summer. That's the key.

Drop mind, intellect and consciousness, leave memory, thinking, and observing alone. Don't try to fabricate Buddha. Don't be concerned with how well or how poorly you think you are doing; just understand that time is as precious as if you were putting out a fire in your hair.

The Buddha sat straight, Bodhidharma faced the wall; both were whole-hearted and committed. Shishuang was like a gnarled dead tree. Rujing warned against sleepy sitting and said, "Just-sitting is all you need. You don't need to make burning incense offerings, meditate upon the names of Buddhas, repent, study the scriptures or do recitation rituals."

When you sit, wear the kesa (except in the first and last parts of the night when the daily schedule is not in effect). Don't be careless. The cushion should be about twelve inches thick and thirty-six in circumference. Don't put it under the thighs but only from mid-thigh to the base of the spine. This is how the Buddhas and Ancestors have sat. You can sit in the full or half lotus postures. To sit in the full lotus, put the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh. Loosen your robes but keep them in order. Put your right hand on your left heel and your left hand on top of your right, thumbs together and close to the body at the level of the navel. Sit straight without leaning to left or right, front or back. Ears and shoulders, nose and navel should be aligned. Place the tongue on the palate and breathe through the nose. The mouth should be closed. The eyes should be open but not too wide nor too slight. Harmonizing the body in this way, breathe deeply with the mouth once or twice. Sitting steadily, sway the torso seven or eight times in decreasing movements. Sit straight and alert.

Now think of what is without thought. How can you think of it? Be Before Thinking. This is the essence of zazen. Shatter obstacles and become intimate with Awakening Awareness.

When you want to get up from stillness, put your hands on your knees, sway seven or eight times in increasing movements. Breathe out through the mouth, put your hands to the floor and get up lightly from the seat. Slowly walk, circling to right or left.

If dullness or sleepiness overcome your sitting, move to the body and open the eyes wider, or place attention above the hairline or between your eyebrows. If you are still not fresh, rub the eyes or the body. If that still doesn't wake you, stand up and walk, always clockwise. Once you've gone about a hundred steps you probably won't be sleepy any longer. The way to walk is to take a half step with each breath. Walk without walking, silent and unmoving.

If you still don't feel fresh after doing kinhin, wash your eyes and forehead with cold water. Or chant the Three Pure Precepts of the Bodhisattvas. Do something; don't just fall asleep. You should be aware of the Great Matter of birth and death and the swiftness of impermanence. What are you doing sleeping when your eye of the Way is still clouded? If dullness and sinking arise repeatedly you should chant, "Habituality is deeply rooted and so I am wrapped in dullness. When will dullness disperse? May the compassion of the Buddhas and Ancestors lift this darkness and misery."

If the mind wanders, place attention at the tip of the nose and tanden and count the inhalations and exhalations. If that doesn't stop the scattering, bring up a phrase and keep it in awareness - for example: "What is it that comes thus?" or "When no thought arises, where is affliction? - Mount Meru!" or "What is the meaning of Bodhidharma's coming from the West? - The cypress in the garden." Sayings like this that you can't draw any flavour out of are suitable.

If scattering continues, sit and look to that point where the breath ends and the eyes close forever and where the child is not yet conceived, where not a single concept can be produced. When a sense of the two-fold emptiness of self and things appears, scattering will surely rest.

8

Arising from stillness, carry out activities without hesitation. This moment is the koan. When practice and realization are without complexity then the koan is this present moment. That which is before any trace arises, the scenery on the other side of time's destruction, the activity of all Buddhas and Awakened Ancestors, is just this one thing.

You should just rest and cease. Be cooled, pass numberless years as this moment. Be cold ashes, a withered tree, an incense burner in an abandoned temple, a piece of unstained silk.

This is my earnest wish.

 

 

 

Zazenyojinki
Points to Watch in Zazen

by Keizan Jokin
Translated by Reiho Masunaga
Chapter 8 (from the book: Soto Approach to Zen)

Introduction

Keizan, the founder of Sojiji wrote this manuscript, while he was staying at Yokoji, a temple in Ishikawa prefecture. Dogen, in Fukanzazengi gave the basic rules for zazen, but Keizan made these rules more explicit. In Zazenyojinki he goes into such details as choosing a sitting place, precautions against weather, harmony of breathing, and ways to calm the mind. Zazenyojinki even covers sitting posture, eating habits, proper clothing, inhaling and exhaling, psychological condition, and sitting rules. It thus gives the trainee a detailed set of precautions for nearly all-foreseeable problems.

Together with Fukanzazengi this work provides a base for Soto Zen practice. The trainee will find here all he needs to avoid the major pitfalls of zazen.

Manzan (Dohaku (1636-1715) published Zazenyojinki in 1680 and wrote an introduction for it. Since then the work has prompted a number of commentaries - the most famous being one by Shigetsu Ein (died 1764) called Zazenyojinki Funogo.

Text (Zazenyojinki)

Zazen clears up the human-being mind immediately and lets him dwell in his true essence. This is called showing one's natural face and expressing one's real self. It is freedom from body and mind and release from sitting and lying down.

So think neither of good nor on evil. Zazen transcends both the unenlightened and the sage, rises above the dualism of delusion and enlightenment, and crosses over the division of beings and Buddha. Through zazen we break free from all things, forsake myriad relations, do nothing, and stop the working of the six sense organs.

Who does this? We still do not know his name. We should call it neither body nor mind. If we try to imagine it, it defies imagination. If we try to describe it, it defies description. It is like the fool - and also the sage. It is high as the mountain and deep as the sea - impossible to see the top or bottom. It shines without an object, and the eyes of wisdom penetrate beyond the Body; the Body expressed itself and forms emerge. The ripple of one wave touches off 10,000 waves. The slight twitch of consciousness brings the 10,000 things bubbling up. The so-called four elements and five aggregates combine, and the four limbs and five organs immediately take form. In addition the 36 bodily possessions and the 12 mutual causes arise and circulate in successive currents. They interpenetrate with myriad things.

Our mind is like the ocean water, our body, like the waves. Just as there is not a single wave outside the ocean waters, not a drop of water exists outside waves. The water and waves are not different; action and inaction do not differ. So it is said: "Even though living and dying, going and coming, they are true men. Even though possessing the four elements and five aggregates, they have the eternal body." This zazen directly enters the ocean of the Buddha Mind and immediately manifests the Buddha Body. Then the Mind -inherently unexcelled, clear, and bright-suddenly emerges, and the supreme light shines fully at last. The ocean waters know no increase or decrease, and neither do the waves undergo change. All Buddhas appear in this world to solve its cloud. It reaches without thinking and radiates the essential teaching in silence. Sitting in both heaven and earth, we express our whole body in freedom. The great man who has sloughed off thinking is like one who has died the Great Death. No illusions distort his sight; his feet pick up no dust. No dust anywhere and nothing obstructs him.

Pure water has neither front nor back. In a clear sky there is essentially no inside and out side. Like them - transparent and clear - zazen shines brightly by itself. Form and void are undivided nor are objects and wisdom apart. They have been together from time eternal and have no name. The Third Patriarch, a great teacher, tentatively called it "Mind"; the respected Nagarjuna called it "Body." It expresses the form of the Buddha and the body of the Buddhas. This full-moon form has neither lack nor excess. Anyone self-identified with this mind is a Buddha. The light of this self, shining both now and in the past, gains shape and fulfills the samadhi of the Buddhas.

The Mind essentially is not two; the Body takes various shapes through causality. Mind-only and Body-only cannot be explained either as different or the same. The Mind changes and becomes the most crucial problems by giving all beings direct access to the Buddha's wisdom. They teach a wonderful way of calmness and detachment zazen. It is, in fact, the self-joyous meditation of the Buddhas. It is the king of meditations. Dwelling in this meditation even for a moment will clear away your delusions. This, we know, is the right gate to Buddhism.

Those who would clear up their mind must abandon complex intellection, forsake the world and Buddhism, and make the Buddha Mind appear. Then the cloud of delusion lifts and the moon of the mind shines anew.

The Buddha is supposed to have said that hearing and thinking about Buddhism is like standing outside the gate but that zazen is truly returning home and sitting down in comfort. This is true. In hearing and thinking of Buddhism, opinions prevail. The mind remains confused; it is truly like standing outside the gate. But in this zazen all things disappear; it is not conditioned by place. It is like returning home and sitting down in comfort.

The delusion of the five hindrances arises from ignorance. Ignorance stems from not knowing the self - the self, that zazen enables us to know. Even if we cut off the five hindrances, we still remain outside the sphere of the Buddhas and patriarchs unless we also free ourselves from ignorance. And the most effective way to do this is zazen. An ancient sage has said: "When delusions disappear, calmness emerges, When calmness emerges, wisdom arises. When wisdom, arises, there is true understanding.

To get rid of delusive thoughts we have to stop thinking about good and evil. We have to sever all relations, throw everything away, think of nothing, and do nothing with our body. This is the primary precaution. When delusive relations disappear, delusive thoughts disappear. When delusive thoughts disappear, there emerges the reality that gives us clear insight into all things. It is not passivity, nor is it activity.

Free yourself from all such trifles as art, technique, medicine, and fortune telling. Stay away from singing, dancing, music, noisy chatter, gossip, publicity, and Profit-seeking. Although composing verse and poetry may help quiet your mind; don't become too intrigued by them. Also abandon writing and calligraphy.

This advice represents a supreme legacy from the seekers of the way in the past. It outlines the prerequisites for bringing your mind into harmony.

Also avoid both beautiful robes, and stained clothing. A beautiful robe gives rise to desire, and there is also the danger of theft. It, there fore, hinders the truth-seeker. If someone hap pens to offer you a rich robe, turn it down. This has been the worthy tradition from long ago. If you have such a robe from before, discount its importance. And if someone steals it, don't brood over your loss.

Wear old clothes but mend any holes and wash off any stain or oil. If you don't clean off the dirt, your chances of getting sick increase, and this would obstruct training.

Lack of clothing, lack of food, and lack of sleep - these are the three lacks. They become a source of idleness. In eating, avoid anything unripe, indigestible, rotten, or unsanitary. Such food will make your stomach rumble and impair your body and mind. You will merely increase your discomfort in zazen. And don't fill up with delicacies. Such gorging not only will decrease your alertness, but also will show everyone that you still have not freed yourself from avarice. Food exists only to support life; don't cling to its taste. If you do zazen with a full stomach you create the cause of sickness. Avoid zazen immediately after breakfast or lunch; it is better to wait awhile.

Generally, monks watch the amount of food they eat. Watching their food intake means limiting the amount: eat two thirds and leave one third. In preparing for zazen, take cold Preventing medicine, sesame seed and mountain potatoes, In actually doing zazen, don't lean against walls, backs of chairs, or screens. Stay away from high places with strong winds even if the view is good. This is a fine way to get sick.

If your body is feverish or cold, dull or active hard or soft, or heavy or light, you probably aren't breathing correctly. Check your breathing, too, if your body feels overly irritable. You must make sure that you are breathing harmoniously at all times during zazen.

To harmonize breathing, use this method: open your mouth for awhile and if a long breath comes, breathe long; if a short breath comes, breathe short. Gradually harmonize your breathing and follow it naturally. When the timing becomes easy and natural, quietly shift your breathing to your nose. When breathing and mind are not coordinated, certain symptoms arise. Your mind sinks or rises, becomes vague or sharp, wanders outside the room or within the body; sees the image of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas, gives birth to corrupting thoughts, or seeks to understand the doctrines of the sutras. When you have these symptoms, it means your mind and breathing are not in harmony. If you have this trouble, shift your mind to the soles of both feet. If the mind sinks, put it on the hairline and between the eyebrows. If your mind is disturbed, rest it on the tip of the nose or on the solar plexus. In ordinary zazen, put your mind in your left palm. In prolonged sitting, even without this the mind naturally remains undisturbed. The old teaching emphasized illumination of mind, but doesn't pay too much attention to this.

Any excesses lead to a disturbed mind. Anything that puts a strain on body and mind becomes a source of illness. So don't practice zazen where there is danger of fire, flood strong winds, and robbery. Keep away from areas near the seashore, bars, and red light districts, homes of widows and young virgins, and theaters. Avoid living near kings, ministers, and high authority or near gossips and seekers after fame and profit.

Temple rituals and buildings have their worth. But if you are concentrating on zazen, avoid them. Don't get attached to sermons and instructions because they will tend to scatter and disturb your mind. Don't take pleasure in attracting crowds or gathering disciples. Shun a variety of practices and studies. Don't do zazen where it is too light or too dark, too cold or too hot, or too near pleasure-seekers and entertainers. You should practice inside the meditation hall, go to Zen masters, or take yourself to high mountains and deep valleys. Green waters and Blue Mountains - these are good places to wander. Near streams and under trees - these places calm the mind. Remember that all things are unstable. In this you member that all things are unstable. In this you may find some encouragement in your search for the way.

The mat should be spread thickly: zazen is the comfortable way. The meditation hall should be clean. If incense is always burned and flowers offered the gods protecting Buddhism and the Bodhisattvas cast their shadows and stand guard. If you put the images of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and Arhats there, all the devils and witches are powerless.

Dwelling always in great compassion, you should offer the limitless merits of zazen to all beings. Don't let pride, egotism, and arrogance arise; they are possessions of the heretical and unenlightened. Vow to cut off desire; vow to obtain enlightenment. Just do zazen and nothing else. This is the basic requirement for zazen.

Before doing zazen, always wash your eyes and feet, and tranquilize your body and mind. Move around easily. Throw away worldly feelings, including the desire for Buddhism. Although you should not begrudge the teaching, don't preach it unless you are asked. After three requests, give the four effects (indicate, instruct, benefit, rejoice). When you feel like talking, keep quiet nine out of 10 times-like mold growing around the mouth and a fan used in December or like a bell hanging in the sky that rings naturally without reliance on the four directions of the wind.

For the trainee this is the main point to watch: possessing the teaching but not selling it cheap. Attaining enlightenment but not taking pride in it. This zazen does not attach itself one-sidedly to doctrine, training, or enlightenment. It combines all these virtues. Enlightenment ordinarily means Satori, but this is not the spirit of zazen. Training ordinarily means actual practice, but this is not the spirit of zazen. Doctrine ordinarily means stopping evil and doing good, but this is not the spirit of zazen.

Although Zen has doctrines, they differ from those of Buddhism in general. The method of direct pointing and true transmission is expressed by the whole body in zazen. In this expression, there are no clauses and sentences. Here, where mind and logic cannot reach, zazen expresses the 10 directions. And this is done without using a single word. Isn't this the true doctrine of the Buddhas and patriarchs?

Although Zen talks about training, it is the training of no-action. The body does nothing except zazen. The mouth does not utter the Dharani, the mind does not work at conceptual thinking; the six sense organs are naturally pure and have no defilement. This is not the 16 views (toward the Four Noble Truths) of the Sravaka, or the 12 causal relations of the Pratyekabuddha, or the six paramitas and other training of the Bodhisattvas. Nothing is done except zazen, and this zazen is called the Buddha's conduct. The trainee just dwells comfortably in the self-joyous meditation of the Buddhas and freely performs the four comfortable actions of the Bodhisattvas. This then is the deep and marvelous training of the Buddhas and patriarchs.

And although we talk about enlightenment, we become enlightened without enlightenment. This is the king of samadhi. This is the samadhi that gives rise to the eternal wisdom of the Buddha. It is the samadhi from which all wisdom arises. It is the samadhi that gives rise to natural wisdom. It is the clear gate that opens into the compassion of the Tathagata. It is the place that gives rise to the teaching of the great comfortable conduct (zazen) - It transcends the distinction between sage and commoner; it is beyond dualistic judgment that separates delusion and enlightenment. Isn't this the enlightenment that expresses one's original face?

Though zazen does not cling to virtue, meditation, and wisdom, it includes them. So-called virtue protects one from wrong and stops evil. But in zazen we see the total body without two-ness. We abandon all things and stop varied relations; we do not cling to Buddhism and worldly affairs; we prized religious sentiment and worldly thoughts. There is neither right and wrong nor good and evil. What is there to suppress and to stop? This is the formless virtue of Buddha nature. Usually zazen means concentrating the mind and eliminating extraneous thoughts. But in this zazen, we free ourselves from dualism of body and mind and of delusion and enlightenment. Neither the body nor mind changes, moves, acts, or worries.

Like a rock, like a stake, like a mountain, like an ocean, the two forms of movement and rest do not arise. This is meditation without the form of meditation. Because there is no form of meditation, it is called just meditation. But in this zazen we naturally destroy the obstacle of knowledge (ignorance), forget the delusive activity of the mind; our entire body becomes the eye of wisdom; there is no discrimination and recognition. We clearly see the Buddha nature and are inherently not deluded. We cut the delusive root of the mind and the light of the Buddha mind shines through suddenly.

This is wisdom without the form of wisdom. Because it is wisdom without form, it is called Great Wisdom. The teachings of the Buddha and the sermons of Sakyamuni (in his life) are all included in virtue, meditation, and wisdom. In this zazen we hold all virtue, train all meditation, and penetrate into wisdom. Suppression of demons, enlightenment, serand death all depend on this power. Superior work and illuminating sermon are all in the zazen. Interviewing the Zen master is also zazen.

If you want to do zazen, you must first find a quiet place. You should sit on a thick cushion. You should allow no smoke or wind to enter. You should keel away from rain and dew. Take care of the sitting place and keep it clean. The Buddha sat on a diamond seat, and the patriarchs sat on huge rocks, but in each case they used cushions. The sitting place should neither be too light during the day nor too dark during the night. It should be warm in winter and cool in summer. These are precautions regarding the place abandon the functioning of the mind; stop dualistic thinking, and do not plan to become a Buddha. Don't think about right and wrong. Do not waste time make efforts as though saving your burning head.

The Buddha sitting under the Bodhi tree and Bodhidharma wall gazing concentrated only on zazen and did nothing else. Sekiso (Shih-shuang Ch'ing-chu) (807-888) sat like a withered tree. Nyojo (Ju-tsing) (1163-1228) warned against taking a nap while doing zazen. Nyojo always said that you can obtain your goal for the first time by merely sitting - without burning incense, giving salutation, saying the Nembutsu, practicing austerity, chanting the sutra, or performing various duties. Generally when doing zazen you should wear a kesa; you must not leave this out. You should not sit completely on the cushion; it should be put halfway back under the spine. This is the sitting method of the Buddhas and the patriarchs. Some meditate in paryanka and others in half-paryanka. In paryanka you must put your right thigh. Wearing your robe loosely adjust your posture.

Next rest your right hand on your left foot and your left hand on your right palm. Touching your thumbs together, bring your hands close to your body. Put them close to your navel. Sit upright and do not lean either to the left or right. Neither should you lean forward nor backward. Place your navel. Keep your tongue against the palate, and breathe through your nose. Keep your lips and teeth firmly closed. You should keep your eyes open. Neither open them too wide nor narrow them too much. After you have seated your self comfortably, inhale sharply. To do this you open your mouth and breathe out once or twice.

After sitting you should move your body seven or eight times from the left to right, going from large motions to small. Then you should sit like an immovable mountain. In this position try to think the unthinkable How do you think the unthinkable? By going beyond both thinking and unthinking. This is the key to zazen. You should cut off your delusions immediately and enlighten the way suddenly.

When you want to get up from zazen, put your hands on your thighs with palms up and move your body seven or eight times from left to right with the motions getting progressively larger. Then open your mouth and inhale; put your hands on the floor; gently arise - from the cushion; and quietly walk around. Turn your body to the right and walk to the right. If you feel sleepy during zazen, you should move -your body and open your eyes widely. Concentrate your mind on the top of your head, edge of your hair, or between your eyebrows. If this doesn't make you - wide awake, stretch out your hand and rub your eyes, or massage your body. If even this does not awaken you, get up from your seat and walk around lightly. You should walk around to the right. If you walk in the way for about 100 steps, your sleepiness should go away. The method of walking is to take a breath every short step (about half of the average step); like moving without moving, it should be done quietly. If even all this does not awaken you, wash your eyes and cool your head. Or read the introduction of the precepts of the Bodhisattva. By these various means you should avoid sleep.

The most important thing is to transcend the problem of birth and death. Though this life moves swiftly, the eye for seeing the way is not open. We must realize that this is no time to sleep. If you are about to be lulled to sleep, you should make this vow: "My habitual passion from former actions is already deep-rooted; therefore I have already received the hindrance of sleep. When will I awake from the darkness? Buddhas and the patriarchs I seek escape from the suffering of my darkness through your great compassion.

If your mind is disturbed, rest it on the tip of the nose or below the navel and count your inhaled and exhaled breath. If your mind still is not calm, take a Koan and concentrate on it. For example consider these non-taste the stories: "Who is this that comes before me?" (Hui-neng); "Does a dog have Buddha nature?" (Chao-chou); Yun men's Mt Sumeru and Chao-chou's oak tree in the garden. These are available applications. If your mind is still disturbed, sit and concentrate on the moment your breath has stopped and both eyes have closed forever, or on the unborn state in your mother's womb or before one thought arises. If you do this, the two Sunyatas (non-ego) will emerge, and the disturbed mind will be put at rests.

When you arise from meditation and unconsciously take action, that action is itself a Koan. Without entering into relation, when you accomplish practice and enlightenment, the Koan manifests itself. State before the creation of heaven and earth, condition of empty kalpa, and wondrous functions and most important thing of Buddhas and patriarchs - all these are one thing, zazen.

We must quit thinking dualistically and put a stop to our delusive mind, cool our passions, transcend moment and eternity, make our mind like cold ashes and withered trees, unify meditation and wisdom like a censer in an old shrine, and purify body and mind like a single white strand. I sincerely hope that you will do all this.

 

KEIZAN JOKIN'S ZAZEN YOJINKI
What to be aware of in zazen, sitting meditation
Translated by Thomas Cleary
Timeless Spring : A Soto Zen anthology. Weatherhill, Tokyo-New York, 1980, pp. 112-125.


Zazen just lets people illumine the mind and rest easy in
their fundamental endowment. This is called showing the
original face and revealing the scenery of the basic ground.
Mind and body drop off, detached whether sitting or lying
down. Therefore we do not think of good or bad, and can
transcend the ordinary and the holy, pass beyond all conception
of illusion and enlightenment, leave the bounds of
sentient beings and buddhas entirely.

So, putting a stop to all concerns, casting off all attachments,
not doing anything at all, the six senses inactive -
who is this, whose name has never been known, cannot
be considered body, cannot be considered mind? When
you try to think of it, thought vanishes; when you try to
speak of it, words come to an end. Like an idiot, like an
ignoramus, high as a mountain, deep as an ocean, not
showing the peak or the invisible depths - shining without
thinking, the source is clear in silent explanation.

Occupying sky and earth, one's whole body alone is
manifest; a person of immeasurable greatness - like one
who has died utterly, whose eyes are not clouded by any-
thing, whose feet are not supported by anything - where
is there any dust? What is a barrier? The clear water never
had front or back, space will never have inside or out.
Crystal clear and naturally radiant before form and void
are separated, how can object and knowledge exist?

This has always been with us, but it has never had a
name. The third patriarch, a great teacher, temporarily
called it mind; the venerable Nagarjuna provisionally
called it body[1] - seeing the essence and form of the enlightened,
manifesting the bodies of all buddhas, this,
symbolized by the full moon, has neither lack nor excess.
It is this mind which is enlightened itself; the light of
one's own mind flashes through the past and shines
through the present. Mastering Nagarjuna's magic symbol,
achieving the concentration of all buddhas, the mind has
no sign of duality, while bodies yet differ in appearance.
Only mind, only body - their difference and sameness are
not the issue; mind changes into body, and when the body
appears they are distinguished. As soon as one wave
moves, ten thousand waves come following; the moment
mental discrimination arises, myriad things burst forth.
That is to say that the four main elements and five clusters
eventually combine, the four limbs and five senses suddenly
appear, and so on down to the thirty six parts of the
body, the twelve fold causal nexus; fabrication flows along,
developing continuity - it only exists because of the combining
of many elements.

Therefore the mind is like the ocean water, the body is
like the waves. As there are no waves without water and
no water without waves, water and waves are not separate,
motion and stillness are not different. Therefore it is
said, "The real person coming and going living and dying
- the imperishable body of the four elements and five
clusters:" [2]

Now zazen is going right into the ocean of enlightenment,
thus manifesting the body of all buddhas. The in-
nate inconceivably clear mind is suddenly revealed and the
original light finally shines everywhere. There is no increase
or decrease in the ocean, and the waves never turn
back. Therefore the enlightened ones have appeared in the
world for the one great purpose of having people realize
the knowledge and vision of enlightenment. And they had
a peaceful, impeccable subtle art, called zazen, which is
the state of absorption that is king of all states of concentration.
If you once rest in this absorption, then you directly
illumine the mind - so we realize it is the main
gate to the way of enlightenment.

Those who wish to illumine the mind should give up
various mixed-up knowledge and interpretation, cast away
both conventional and buddhist principles, cut off all delusive
sentiments, and manifest the one truly real mind -
the clouds of illusion clear up, the mind moon shines
anew. The Buddha said, "Learning and thinking are like
being outside the door; sitting in meditation is returning
home to sit in peace." How true this is! While learning
and thinking, views have not stopped and the mind is still
stuck - that is why it is like being outside the door. But
in this sitting meditation, zazen, everything is at rest and
you penetrate everywhere - thus it is like returning home
to sit in peace.

The afflictions of the five obscurations[3] all come from
ignorance, and ignorance means not understanding yourself.
Zazen is understanding yourself. Even though you
have eliminated the five obscurations, if you have not
eliminated ignorance, you are not a buddha or an ancestor.
If you want to eliminate ignorance, zazen to discern the
path is the most essential secret.

An ancient said, "When confusion ceases, tranquility
comes; when tranquility comes, wisdom appears, and
when wisdom appears reality is seen." If you want to put
an end to your illusion you must stop thinking of good
and bad and must give up all involvement in activity; the
mind not thinking and the body not doing is the most essential
point. When delusive attachments end, illusion dies
out. When illusion dies out, the unchanging essence is revealed
and you are always clearly aware of it. It is not absolute
quiescence, it is not activity.

Hence you should avoid all arts and crafts, medical prescription
and augury, as well as songs and dance and
music, disputation, meaningless talk, and honor and profit.
Though poetry and song can be an aid to clarifying the
mind, still you should not be fond of making them; to give
up writing and calligraphy is the superior precedent of the
people of the way, the best way for harmonizing the mind.

You should not be attached to either fine clothing or
dirty rags. Fine clothing instigates greed, and there is also
the fear of theft - therefore it is a hindrance to someone
on the way. To refuse it when someone gives it for some
reason is a praiseworthy act exemplified from ancient
limes. Even if you happen to have fine clothing, still don't
be concerned about taking care of it; if thieves take it,
don't chase after it or regret the loss. Old dirty clothes,
washed, mended, and completely cleaned, should be
worn; if you don't get rid of the dirt you'll get cold and
become sick - this too causes obstruction on the way. Although
we are not to be anxious for our lives, if clothing,
food, and sleep are not sufficient, this is called the three
insufficiencies, and are all causes of regression.

Any living things, hard things, and spoiled things -
impure food - should not be eaten; with gurgling and
churning in the belly, heat and discomfort of body and
mind, there will be difficulty in sitting. Do not indulge in
attachment to fine food - not only will your body and
mind be uncomfortable, but it means you are still greedy.
You should take enough food just to support life; don't
savor its taste. If you sit after having eaten your fill it can
cause illness. After big or small meals, don't sit right
away; rather, wait a while before sitting. In general, men-
dicant monks should be moderate in eating; that means to
limit their portions, eat two parts of three and leave on
part. All usual medicaments, sesame, wild yams, etc., can
be eaten. This is the essential technique of tuning th
body.

When sitting in zazen, do not lean against any wall,
meditation brace or screen. Also don't sit in a windy place
or up on a high exposed place. These are causes of illness.
When sitting in meditation, your body may seem hot or
cold, uneasy or comfortable, sometimes stiff, sometimes
loose, sometimes heavy, sometimes light, sometimes startled
awake. This is all because the breath is not in tunc
and needs to be tuned. The way of tuning the breath is as
follows: open your mouth, letting the breath be, long or
short, gradually harmonizing it; following it for a while,
when a sense of awareness comes, the breath is then in
good tune. After that let the breath pass naturally through
the nose.

The mind may seem to sink away or float off, sometimes
it seems dull, sometimes it seems sharp. Sometimes you
see through outside the room, sometimes you can see
through your body, sometimes you see forms of buddhas
or bodhisattvas. Sometimes you comprehend scriptures or
treatises. Extraordinary things like this are diseases from
lack of harmony between awareness and breath. When
they happen, sit with the mind resting in the lap. If the
mind sinks into torpor, rest your mind between your eyes
on your hairline (three inches above the center of the
eyebrows). If your mind is distracted and scattered, rest
your mind on the tip of your nose and your lower belly
(one and a half inches below the navel). When sitting all
the time rest the mind in the left palm. When you sit for a
long time, though you do not force the mind to be calm, it
will naturally not be scattered.

Now as for the ancient teachings, though they are traditional
lessons for illuminating the mind, don't read, write,
or listen to them too much - too much causes disturbance
10 the mind. In general, anything that wears out body and
mind can cause illness. Don't sit where there are fires,
floods, or bandits, or by the sea, near wineshops, brothels,
or where widows, virgins, or singing girls are. Don't hang
Mound kings, important officials, powerful people, or
people full of lust and eager for name and fame, or tellers
of tales. As for mass buddhist services and large construction
projects, though they are good things, people who are
concentrating only on sitting should not do them.

Don't be fond of preaching and teaching, for distraction
and scattered thoughts come from this. Don't take delight
in crowds or seek for disciples. Don't study or practice too
many things. Don't sit where it is extremely bright or
dark, extremely cold or hot, or around roustabouts and
playgirls. You can stay in a monastery where there is a real
teacher, deep in the mountains and hidden valleys. Green
waters and verdant mountains are the place to walk in
meditation; by the streams, under the trees are places to
clear the mind. Observe impermanence, never forget it;
this urges on the will to seek enlightenment.

A sitting mat should be spread thick for comfortable sitting,
and the place of practice should be clean - always
burn incense and offer flowers: the good spirits who guard
the true teaching, as well as buddhas and bodhisattvas,
will cast their shadows there and give protection. If you
place an image of a buddha, bodhisattva, or saint there, no
evil demon or spirit can get at you.

Always abide in great compassion, and dedicate the
boundless power of sitting meditation to all living beings.
Don't become proud, conceited or self-righteous - these
are qualities of outsiders and ordinary people. Remember
the vow to end afflictions, the vow to realize enlightenment.
Just sitting, not doing anything at all, is the essential
technique for penetrating zen. Always wash your eyes
and feet (before zazen). With body and mind at ease, be-
haviour harmonious, abandon worldly feelings and don't
cling to feelings of the way.

Although one should not begrudge the teaching, don't
speak about it unless you are asked - then hold your
peace for three requests, comply if there is a fourth request
in earnest. Of ten things you would say, leave off nine.
Mold growing around the mouth, like a fan in winter, like
a bell hung in the air, not questioning the wind from all
directions - this is characteristic of people of the way. Just
go by the principle of the teaching[4], don't care about the
person; go by the path and do not congratulate yourself -
this is the most important point to remember.

Zazen is not concerned with teaching, practice, or realization,
yet it contains these three aspects. That is to say,
the criterion of realization depends on enlightenment -
this is not the spirit of zazen. Practice is based on genuine
application - this is not the spirit of zazen. Teaching is
based on eliminating evil and cultivating goodness - this
is not the spirit of zazen. Although teaching is established
within zen, it is not ordinary teaching; it is direct pointing,
simply communicating the way, speaking with the
whole body. The words have no sentences or phrases;
where ideas are ended the reason exhausted, one word
comprehends the ten directions. And yet not a single hair
is raised - is this not the true teaching of the buddhas
and enlightened ancestors?

And although we speak of practice, it is practice without
any doing. That is to say, the body doesn't do anything,
the mouth does not recite anything,[5] the mind does not
think anything over, the six senses are naturally pure and
clear, not affected by anything. This is not the sixteen-fold
practice of the buddhist disciples[6] or the twelve-fold practice
of those enlightened through understanding of causality,[7]
or the six ways of transcendental practice undertaking
myriad actions done by bodhisattvas;[8] not doing anything
at all, it is therefore called buddhahood, the state of enlightenment.

Just resting in the absorption self-experienced by all enlightened
ones, roaming at play in the four peaceful and
blissful practices of bodhisattvas,[9] is this not the profound,
inconceivable practice of buddhas and ancestors?

Though we may speak of realization, this is realization
without realization, this is the absorption in the king of
concentration, the state of awareness in which you disrover
knowledge of birthlessness, all knowledge, and
spontaneous knowledge; [10] it is the gate of illumination
through which the wisdom of the realized ones [11] opens
up, produced by the method of practice of great ease. It
transcends the patterns of holy and ordinary, goes beyond
the sense of confusion and understanding; is this not the
realization of innate great enlightment?

Also zazen is not concerned with discipline, concentration,
or wisdom, but contains these three studies. That is,
discipline is to prevent wrong and stop evil; in zazen we
see the whole substance as non dual, cast aside myriad
concerns and lay to rest all entanglements. Not concerned
with the buddhist way or the worldly way, forgetting feelings
about the path as well as mundane feelings, no affirmation
or denial, no good or bad - what is there to prevent
or stop? This is the formless discipline of the mind
ground.

Concentration means undivided contemplation; in zazen
we slough off body and mind, abandon confusion and understanding,
immutable and imperturbable, not acting, not
befuddled, like an idiot, like a dunce, like a mountain, like
an ocean, no trace of either motion or stillness arises -
concentrated without any sign of concentration, because
there is no form of concentration, it is called great concentration.

Wisdom is discerning comprehension; in zazen knowledge
disappears of itself, mind and discriminating con-
sciousness is forever forgotten. The wisdom eye throughout
the body has no discernment, but clearly sees the essence
of buddhahood; fundamentally unconfused, cutting
off the conceptual faculty, open and clearly shining all the
way through, this is wisdom without any sign of wisdom;
because it has no sign of wisdom it is called great wisdom.

The teachings expounded by the buddhas in their lifetimes
are all contained in discipline (morality), concentration
(meditation), and wisdom (knowledge); in this zazen,
there is no discipline that is not maintained, no concentration
that is not cultivated, no wisdom that is not
realized. Vanquishing demons, attaining the way, turning
the wheel of the true teaching and returning to extinction,
all depend on this power. Supernormal powers and their
inconceivable functions, emanating light and expounding
the teaching are all in the act of sitting. Investigation of
zen also is sitting in zazen.

If you want to sit in meditation, first find a quiet place
and lay a thick cushion; do not let wind or smoke, rain or
dew in. Keep a clear place to sit, with enough room for
your knees. Although there were people who sat on diamond
seats or boulders in ancient times, they all had sitting
cushions. Where you sit should not be light in the
daytime or dark at night; it should be warm in winter and
cool in summer - that's the technique.

Cast off mind, intellect, and consciousnesses, cease recollection,
thought, and observation. Don't aim at becoming a
buddha, don't be concerned with right or wrong; value
time, as though saving your head from burning. The
Buddha sat upright, Bodhidharma faced a wall, singleminded,
without any other concerns at all. Shishuang was
like a dead tree, Rujing admonished against sleeping while
sitting; "you can only succeed by just sitting, without
need to make use of burning incense, prostrations, remembrance
of buddha names, repentance ceremonies,
reading scriptures or ritual recitations."[12]

Whenever you sit, you should wear a kashaya (kesa) (exccpt
during the first and last parts of the night when the
daily schedule is not in effect) - don't neglect this. The
cushion (twelve inches across, thirty-six in circumference)
should not support the whole thighs - it should reach
from midthigh to the base of the spine. This is the way the
buddhas and patriarchs sat. You may sit in full or half
lotus position; the way to sit in full lotus is to put the right
foot on the left thigh, then put the left foot on the right
thigh. Loosen your clothes and straighten them; next put
your right hand on your left foot and your left hand on
your right hand, with your thumbs together near the body
about the level of your navel. Sit up straight, without leaning
to the left or right, front or back. The ears and shoulders,
nose and navel, should be aligned. The tongue is
kept on the roof of the mouth and the breath should pass
through the nose. The mouth should be closed, while the
eyes should be open, though not too widely or too
slightly.[13] Having attuned your body in this way, breathe
deeply through the mouth a couple of times. Next, sitting
steady, sway your body seven or eight times, going from
larger to smaller movements. Then sit upright and intent.

Now think of what doesn't think - [14] how to think of it?
Not thinking. This is the essential method of zazen. You
should break directly through afflictions and personally
realize enlightenment. When you want to rise from stillness,
first put your hands on your knees, sway your body
seven or eight times, going from small to larger movements.
Open your mouth and breathe out, put your hands
on the ground and lightly rise from your seat.

Walk slowly, circling to the right or left. If torpor and
sleepiness overcomes you while sitting, always move your
body or open your eyes wide; also put your mind on your
hairline between your eyebrows. If you still are not wakeful,
rub your eyes or body. If that still doesn't wake you
up, get up and walk around, always circling to the left.

Once you have gone a hundred steps or so, your sleepiness
should have vanished. The way to walk is to take a
half step with each breath.[15] You walk as though not walking
anywhere, silent and unmoving. If you still don't wake
up after walking around like this, either wash your eyes
and cool your forehead, or recite the preface to the precepts
for bodhisattvas, or some such thing - just find
some way not to fall asleep. You should observe that the
matter of life and death is a great one, and impermanence
is swift - what are you doing sleeping when your eye of
the way is not yet clear? If torpor and drowsiness come
over you repeatedly, you should pray, "My habits are
deepseated, and that is why I am enshrouded by drowsiness
- when will my torpor disperse? I pray that the buddhas
and enlightened ancestors will be so compassionate
as to remove my darkness and misery."

If your mind is scattered, fix your mind on the tip of
your nose and lower belly and count your incoming and
outgoing breaths. If that doesn't stop your distraction,
then bring a saying to mind and keep it in mind to awaken
you - for example, "What thing comes thus?" "A dog
has no enlightened nature." "When no thought arises, is
there still any fault? - Mount Everest!" "What is the
meaning of Bodhidharma's coming from the West? - the
cypress tree in the garden:' Flavorless sayings like this are
suitable. If (scattering distraction) still doesn't stop, sit and
focus on the point where the breath ends and the eyes
close forever, or else where the embryo is not yet conceived
and not a single thought is produced; when the
twin void[16] suddenly appears, the scattered mind will
surely come to rest.

After coming out of stillness, when you carry on your
activities without thinking, the present event is the public
affair (koan); when you accomplish practice and realization
without interfusion.[17] then the public affair is the present
happening. That which is before any signs appear, the
situation on the other side of the empty aeon, the spiritual
capacity of all buddhas and patriarchs, is just this one
thing. You should just rest, cease; be cool, passing myriad
years as an instant, be cold ashes, a dead tree, an incense
burner in an ancient shrine, a piece of white silk. This
I pray.

NOTES TO ZAZEN YOJINKI
1. In an incident well known in zen circles, the fourteenth patriarch
of zen, the Indian master Nagarjuna, once manifested the
appearance of a circular figure, like the full moon, where he sat to
expound the Dharma; the full moon represents the dharrnakaya,
or body of reality.
2. The body-mind is represented as being made up of organs
and functions corresponding to the four gross elements: earth,
water, fire, and air; since early times buddhists in India represented
the being to be made up of five clusters: matter, sensation,
perception, relational functions (including emotions, judgements,
etc.), and consciousness.
3. The five obscurations. or coverings, of the mind in meditation
are greed and lust, anger and hatred, folly and delusion,
drowsiness, and excitement and regret.
4. This principle is one of the so-called 'four reliances' - to rely
on the truth, not the person, which means that anyone can see
reality and become enlightened if they go by the truth which is
as it is because that is its real nature; it is not a question of
human feelings. The other three reliances are to rely on the definitive
teaching, not the incomplete teaching, to rely on the
meaning and not the words, and to rely on wisdom, not conventional
knowledge.
5. The way this is worded it could refer to mystic spells, and/or
to silent recitation.
6. This refers to the sixteen stages of mind on the path of insight
(darsanamarga) as defined in the Abhidharmakosa: they
consist of the tolerance and knowledge of the corresponding
truths of suffering, etc., in the 'higher' worlds of form and
formlessness (eight more).
7. This refers to the application of the understanding of the
twelve links of causality: ignorance, activity, consciousness, name
and form, six senses, contact, sensation, desire, attachment, becoming,
birth, old age and death. By removing one link the chain
can be broken.
8. The six ways of transcendental practice are generosity without
conception of giver, receiver, or gift; morality; tolerance;
effort; meditation; and wisdom. These are transcendent in that
their accomplishment is supposed to involve no sense of subject
or object.
9. This refers to blissful and peaceful activities of body, mouth,
and mind, and of carrying out vows. According to the Lotus
scripture, for the body this means not associating with powerful
aristocrats, with sorcerers, with criminals or prostitutes, with
butchers, with followers of the vehicles of disciples or selfenlightened
ones, desirous thoughts, with hermaphrodites,
dangerous places, censured things, or keeping young children as
acolytes; once one avoids these ten kinds of people or actions,
one is at ease. As far as the mouth is concerned, it means not to
indulge in talking about the errors of other people or the scriptures,
not to belittle others, not to praise others, not to slander
others, and not to be resentful. As far as mind is concerned, it
means to avoid flattery, depredation, to avoid scorning those of
small actions with one's own grandiose actions, and to avoid contention.
Carrying out vows in peace and bliss means using the
power of one's vow to rescue all beings to govern oneself.
10. Knowledge of the birthlessness, or nonorigination of all
things, was sometimes understood to mean unborn knowledge,
or knowledge that is natural and not fabricated. All knowledge is
spoken of as general and particular; knowing universal relativity,
and knowing the particular relations. Spontaneous knowledge is
the knowledge that has no teacher, that doesn't come from without.
11. Tathagata, one who has realized thusness, is an epithet of a
buddha.
12. This is a statement of Rujing, Dogen's teacher.
13. Rujing told Dogen that it was all right to close the eyes. A
number of recommendations about meditation found in this little
work seem to have come from Rujing's teaching.
14. This could be read think of the unthinkable, or think of
what doesn't think; this is a famous saying of Yaoshan, a disciple
of Shitou and one of the early ancestors of Soto zen in China.
15. The foot should be moved a distance equal to the length of
the foot. This method of walking in meditation (kinhin) was
taught to Dogen by Rujing.
16. This refers to the voidness of person and things.
17. Interfusion means nondifferentiation, so not interfusing
means differentiation, each thing abiding in its characteristic
state - so called 'mountain is mountain, river is river.'

 

Cf.
"Zazen Yojinki, Merkbuch fur die Ubung des Zazen," German translation by Heinrich Dumoulin, S. J., in Monumenta Nipponica, XIII (1957-1958), Nos. 3-4, 147-164. Contains a long introduction with biographical material on the author and copious footnotes.

 

 

 

Sankon Zazen Setsu: Three Kinds of Zen Practitioners
Translated by Anzan Hoshin & Yasuda Joshu Dainen
(excerpted from the Treasury of Luminosity)

The person whose zazen is of the most profound type has no interest in how the Buddhas might appear in this present world. Such a one doesn't speculate about the truths which cannot even be transmitted by the Buddhas and Ancestors. She doesn't have any doctrine about "all things being the expression of the self" because she is beyond "enlightenment" and "delusion". Since his views never fall into dualistic angles, nothing obstructs him, even when distinctions appear. She just eats when she is hungry. He just sleeps when he is tired.

The person whose zazen is of a medium type abandons everything and cuts all ties. Throughout the day she is never idle and so every moment of life, every breath, is practice of the Dharma. Or else he might concentrate on a koan, eyes fixed, his view in one place such as the tip of the nose. Considerations of life and death, going and staying, are not seen on her face. The mind of discrimination can never see into the deepest unchanging truth, nor can it understand the Buddhamind. Since there is no dualistic thoughts, he is enlightened. From the far past up to right now, wisdom is always brillliant, clear, shining. The whole universe throughout the ten directions is illuminated suddenly from her brow, all things are seen in detail within her body.

The person whose zazen is just ordinary views all things from all sides and frees herself from good and bad conditions. The mind naturally expresses the Actual Nature of all the Buddhas because Buddha stands right where your own feet are. Thus wrong action does not arise. The hands are held in Reality mudra and do not hold onto any scriptures. The mouth is tightly closed, as if the lips were sealed, and no word of doctrine is spoken. The eyes are neither wide open nor shut. Nothing is ever seen from the point of view of fragmentation and good and evil words are left unheard. The nose doesn't choose one smell as good, another as bad. The body is not propped up and all delusion is ended. Since delusion does not disturb the mind, neither sorrow nor glee appear. Just like a wooden carving of the Buddha, both the substance and the form are true. Worldly thoughts might arise but they do not disturb because the mind is a bright mirror with no trace of shadows.

The Precepts arise naturally from zazen whether they are the five, eight, the Great Bodhisattva Precepts, the monastic Precepts, the three thousand rules of deportment, the eighty thousand Teachings, or the supreme Dharma of the Buddhas and Awakened Ancestors. No practice whatsover can be measured against zazen.

Should only one merit be gained from the practice of zazen, it is vaster than the construction of a hundred, a thousand or a limitless number of monasteries. Practice shikan-taza , just sitting ceaselessly. Doing so we are liberated from birth and death and realise our own hidden Buddhanature.

In perfect ease go, stay, sit and lie down. Seeing, hearing, understanding and knowing are all the natural display of the Actual Nature. From first to last, mind is mind, beyond any arguments about knowledge and ignorance. Just do zazen with all of who and what you are. Never stray from it or lose it.

 

 

SANKON ZAZEN SETSU: The Three Personalities in Training
by Zen Master Keisan Jokin
trans. by Jiyu Kennett

Those who do zazen naturally have no interest in such matters as how Buddhas appear in this present world, nor do they consider truths that are un-transmittable by even the Buddhas and Ancestors. They do not doctrinalize about all things being expressions of the self, for they are beyond enlightenment and delusion. Since they never consider anything from a dualistic point of view, nothing ever enslaves them, even when differences show themselves. They just eat when they are hungry and sleep when they are tired.

Those who do zazen completely, seamlessly, give up everything and cut all ties. Since throughout the entire day they are never idle, every moment of life, every breath, is a meditation upon truth; as an alternative to this, they may concentrate on a koan with eyes fixed on one place, such as the tip of the nose. The considerations of life and death, or going and staying, are not to be seen upon the face. The discriminatory mind can never perceive the highest truth of the eternal, nor can it comprehend the Buddha mind. Since there is no dualism in their thought, they are enlightened. From the far past to the present day, wisdom is always shining clearly and brightly. The whole universe in all the ten directions is permeated suddenly by the illumination from their heads; all phenomena are seen separately within their bodies.

Those who do zazen single-mindedly consider everything from all angles before freeing themselves from good and evil karma. Their minds express naturally the true nature of all the Buddhas, for their feet stand where the Buddha stands; thus are evil ways avoided. The hands are in the position for meditation, holding no scripture. The mouth being tightly shut, it is as if a seal were upon the lips, for no word of any doctrine is ever uttered. The eyes are neither wide open nor half shut; in no way is anything considered from the point of view of differentiation, for the voice of good and evil is not listened to. The nose takes no cognizance of smell as either good or bad; the body relies upon nothing, for all delusion is suddenly ended. Since there is no delusion to disturb the mind, neither sorrow nor joy is to be found. As in the case of a wooden Buddha, both material and form are one with the truth. Although worldly thoughts may arise, they are not disturbing, for the mind is a bright mirror in which no shadows move. From zazen, the precepts arise eternally, whether they are the five, the eight, the great precepts of the bodhisattva, the precepts of the priesthood, the three thousand manners, the eighty thousand beliefs, or the highest law of the Buddhas and ancestors. In all training, nothing whatsoever compares with zazen.

Even if only one merit is gained from doing zazen, it is greater than the building of a hundred, a thousand, or an uncountable number of temples. Just do zazen forever, without ceasing, for by so doing, we are free of birth and death and realize our own latent Buddha nature. It is perfect and natural to go, stay, sit, and lie down; to see, hear, understand, and know are natural manifestations of the True Self; between first mind and last mind there is no difference, and none can make an argument about either knowledge or ignorance. Do zazen with your whole being; never forget and lose it.

 

 

Sankon-Zazen-Setsu: Theory of Zazen for Three Personality Types
Written by zen master Keizan translated by Prof. Masunaga Reiho
Translated in Zen for Daily Living by Prof. Masunaga Reiho, Page 40, Shunjusha Pablishing Co., 1964.

Introduction

Keizan wrote this treatise while at Yokoji in Ishikawa prefecture. It is related closely to Dogens Fukanzazengi. In Zazenyojinki Keizan elaborated on Dogens basic work In Sankon-zazen-Setsu Keizan provided instructions for three types of persons.

For the most superior person, zazen is natural behavior embodying enlightenment. It is sleeping when tired and eating when hungry. The zazen of a less superior person, according to Keizan, suspends relations with myriad things and occasionally concentrates on a Koan. The zazen of an ordinary person withdraws from the karma of good and evil, and expresses the basic nature of the Buddha with the mind itself.

Manuscripts of this work stored for many years in Daijoji, Yokoji, and Sojiji. But no one knew of their existence until Manzan rediscovered the work in 1680 while at Daijoji. Adding a prologue and epilogue, Manzan published the work the following spring together with Keizan shingi (Keizans Monastery Rules).

Text (Sankon-Zazen-Setsu)

The zazen of the most superior person does not concern itself with questions about why the Buddhas appeared in this world. He does not think about the excellence that even the Buddhas and patriarchs cannot transmit. When hungry, he eats; when tired, he sleeps. He does not insist that all appearances are the self. He stands above both enlightenment and delusion. Naturally and effectively, he just does right zazen. And despite of this, the myriad things are not dualistically considered. Even if differentiations would arise, the most superior person does not let them enslave him.

The zazen of the less superior person forsakes all things and cuts off all relations. In the 12 hours there is no idle moment. As he inhales and exhales, he meditates each moment on truth. Or picking up a single Koan, he focuses his eyes on the tip of his nose. His natural face is not conditioned by life and death or by going and coming. The superior truth of the eternal reality and Buddha-nature cannot be grasped by the discriminating mind. While not thinking dualistically, he is not unenlightened. The wisdom clearly and brightly radiates from ancient times to now. The head sharply illuminates the 10 directions of the world; the whole body is manifested individually in all phenomena.

The zazen of the ordinary person weighs myriad relations and breaks free from the karma of good and evil. Our mind itself expresses the basic nature of the various Buddhas. Our feet are linked to the Buddha's position, and we stay away from evil places. Our hands are held in the meditative sign. There is no sutra in our hands. Our mouth is sewn shut, and our lips are sealed. Not even one doctrine is preached. Our eyes are open, but neither wide nor narrow. We do not differentiate the myriad things; we do not listen to the voice of good or evil. Our nose does not discriminate between good and bad smells. Our body does not rely on things. We abruptly stop all delusive activities. With no delusions stirring up our mind, sorrow and joy both drops away. Like a wooden Buddha, body and form naturally harmonize with truth. Even though various deluded and inverted thoughts arise, they do not take possession. It is like a clear mirror that holds no waving shadows. The five precepts, the eight precepts, the Great Precepts of the Bodhisattvas, all the precepts of monks, 3,000 behaviors, the 80,000 thorough practices, the superior true law of the various Buddhas and patriarchs - all these arise from zazen limitlessly. Within the sphere of training, zazen alone is the most superior practice.

If we practice zazen and accumulate even a single merit, it is better than to build 100, 1,000, or innumerable halls and towers. In short, do zazen continually and don't give it up. We free ourselves from birth and death forever and penetrate to the Buddha in our own mind. The four activities of going, staying, sitting, and lying are nothing but natural and unexcelled functions. Seeing, hearing, perceiving, and knowing, are all the light of original nature. There is no choice between the beginning mind and the ripened mind. Knowledge and ignorance are not open to argument.

Just do zazen wholeheartedly. Do not forget it or lose it.


 

 

 


坐禅用心記
Zazen Yojinki
Feljegyzés ahhoz, hogyan legyünk körültekintőek a zazenben
Írta: 瑩山紹瑾 禅師 Keizan Jokin zenji (1268-1325)
Fordította: Gáncs Nikolasz

http://zen.gportal.hu/gindex.php?pg=4792614&nid=5028064
http://japankalligrafia.hu/book/export/html/48

1

A zazenben ülés a tudat azonnali megtisztítása és a tökéletes természet [buddha-természet] átélése. Ezt úgy nevezik: „az eredeti arc megmutatása” és „az eredeti föld természetes szépségének felfedése”. Engedd el a gondolatokat testről és tudatról, és ugyanaz lesz, ha ülsz vagy ha fekszel. Tehát meghaladva a jó gondolatát és a rossz gondolatát, a szent és a profán gondolatát, túllépsz a korláton, amely elválasztja az érző lényt a buddhától. Ezért mindent nyugalomban kell hagyj [a nem-cselekvésben kell időzz], a dolgokat el kell dobd, és a hat érzék nem fog újabb dolgokat alkotni. [Hogy mi vagy] Ki ez? Mivel a név ismeretlen, ezért nem lehet testnek nevezni és nem lehet tudatnak sem nevezni. Mikor megpróbálunk gondolni rá, eltűnik. Ha beszélni akarunk róla, a szavak meghalnak. Olyan akár egy bolond, olyan akár egy gyengeelméjű, magas akár egy hegy, mély akár egy óceán, ám nincsen csúcsa, nincsen mélye. Megvilágítja a tárgyakkal való nem szembenállást, a szeme a felhőkön túlra is tisztán lát. Alapos megfontolással halad tovább, a vallásban [a vallás valóságában] és a csendben válik fénylővé. Ég és föld között ülve meghalad mindent, és az egész test teljes magányában nyilvánul meg. A teljesen megvilágosodott akár nagy halott is lehet, szemét nem akadályozza árnyék, lábát nem foghatja le a por. [Tiszta szemekkel, sehol sem áll.] Sehol sem lehet hát por, semmi sem állhat ellen. A tiszta víznek nincs eleje és nincs vége, az űrnek nincs külseje és nincs belseje. Teljesen tiszta, nyilvánvaló, ragyog. Már azelőtt ilyen volt mielőtt a formát és az ürességet tévedéssel megalkották. A tudat tartamnak és a tudatnak nincs hol létezni.

[Öröktől létezik, neve mégsincsen.] A Harmadik Pátriárka, a nagy mester [Sengcan] átmenetileg „tudatnak” nevezte, a Tiszteletreméltó Nágárdzsuna a „test” szóval illette. A megvilágosodott eszenciában és formában [a buddha-természet formája], melyből a Buddhák teste is áll, nincs „több” vagy „kevesebb”. Ezt a teliholddal szokták szimbolizálni, de jelentése maga a megvilágosodott elme [a Buddha]. Ez az elemi világosság túlragyog a múlton és jelenen. Nágárdzsuna a „buddhák szamádhiájának” szimbólumaként használta. A tudat valójában nem kettős, a test eltér a formától és a nyilvánvalótól. Csak tudat, csak test, a különbségek és az azonosságok célt tévesztenek. A test az elmében születik, és amint a test megszületett vele jár a különbségtétel. Ha egyetlen hullám is kél, tízezer hullám követi, amint egy tudati konstrukció [gondolat] megjelenik, tízezer követi. Így tehát a négy elem és az öt halmazat végül létrejön, a négy végtag és az öt érzékszerv megjelenik. Ez így folytatódik tovább, amíg a harminchat testrész, a tizenkettes oksági láncolat átölel mindent. Valójában sorban minden dharma összetevődik. Az elme olyan akár az óceán vize, a test okozza hullámait. A tengervíz nincs azon a ponton kívül, ahol a hullámok vannak, a hullám nincs azon kívül, ahol egy csepp víz van. A víz és a hullám, a mozdulat és a mozdulatlanság nem különböznek. Ezért mondják: „A személy él és meghal, jön és megy, mint a múlhatatlan test, a négy elem és az öt halmazat.”

 

2

A zazen rögtön belép a buddha-természet óceánjába, más szóval megjelenik a Buddhák testében. A tudat természetes fényessége hirtelen megmutatja magát és az eredendő fény mindenhol jelen van. Nincs csökkenés és növekedés, az óceán hullámai sohasem fordulnak vissza. A buddhák azért jelentek meg e földön, hogy a nagy művet végrehajtván tanítsák meg az embereket a bölcsességre, segítsék a felébredésüket és a felébredés erejével ruházzák fel őket. Ezt a csendes, békés és tiszta művészetet hívják zazennek, ez a szamádhi minden buddha önmagában álló élvezetének forrása, valamint ez a szamádhi a szamádhik királya. Ha egyszer is ebben a szamádhiban időzöl, az maga a tudat megtisztítása [békéje]. Tudnod kell ez a buddhák igaz útjának kapuja.

Ha el akarod érni a tudat-földjét, add fel az összevisszaságot, a korlátolt tudást és az értelmezéseket, vágd el a haszontalan gondolatokat, és a szentséget, és minden zavaró érzelmet is vess el, ekkor a valódi tudat megjelenik, a káprázatok felhői eloszlanak, és a tudat holdja újra fényesen ragyog.

A Buddha azt mondta: „Valamiről gondolkodni és azt hallgatni olyan, mint ha erős ajtóval zárnának ki minket, míg a zazen olyan, mint hazaérni és nyugodtan leülni.” Igazán, valamiről gondolkodni és azt hallgatni, nézetekkel élni és a tudatot nem elnyugtatni, olyan mintha erős ajtóval kizárnánk a tudat-földjét. Az igaz zazen mindent nyugalomba helyez és mégis mindenen áthatol [mindent áthat], és ez az ülés olyan, mint hazamenni és elnyugodni. Aki az ötféle zavar csapdájában vergődik, annál felébred az alapvető nem-tudás. Az alapvető nem-tudás a saját természetünk nem tudásából ered, a zazen a saját természetünk megértése. Még ha meg is szüntetted az ötféle zavart, nem biztos, hogy megszüntetted az alapvető nem-tudást, és amíg ezt nem szüntetted meg, nem látod magad sem buddhának, sem pátriárkának. Az alapvető nem-tudás megszüntetésének titka a zazen helyes gyakorlásában rejlik.

 

3

Egy öreg [régi] mester azt mondta: „Mikor a gondolkodás zavara elül, tisztánlátás kél, mikor tisztánlátás kél, megjelenik a bölcsesség, mikor megjelenik a bölcsesség, a valóság megmutatja önmagát”. Ha el akarod csitítani a tudatod zavarát, el kell csitítani a rossz és jó gondolatát, ne bonyolódj felesleges ügyekbe, az elme nem „gondolkodik”, a test „mentes a mozgástól”. Ezt fontos észrevenni. Mikor az illuzórikus ragaszkodások eltörlődnek, a káprázatok tudata [a tudat zavara] is csökken, mikor a zavarossá válás elfogy, úgy lép a változatlan lét a jelenségbe, és ha ennek te mindig egészen a tudatában vagy, az nem a mozdulatlanság vagy a tevékenység.

Kerüld el, hogy beleragadj a mesterségekbe [szakmákba], a művészetekbe, az orvoslásba, a jóslásokba, maradj távol az énekléstől és a tánctól, a szórakozástól, a vitatkozástól és a pletykálkodástól, a hírnévtől és a haszontól. A költészet és a dalok egyes fajtái, bár eszközök lehetnek, amelyekkel megtisztítjuk az elmét, mégse ragadj bele azokba sem. Ugyanez igaz az írásra és a kalligráfiára is, ezek a legfontosabb feltételek az út gyakorlói számára, és ezek a tudat harmonizálásának módjai is.

Ne viselj sem drága holmikat, sem rongyokat [koszos ruhákat]. A drága holmik utat engednek a kapzsiságnak és a félelemnek, hogy ellopnak tőled valamit. Ez akadály az út gyakorlásában. Ha fel is ajánlanak neked ilyesmit, a visszautasítás egy kitűnő szokás [tradíció] a régi korokból. Ha mégis ilyen ruhád van, ne törődj vele, ha ellopják, ne hajszold, vagy ne bánd az elvesztését. A régi koszos ruhákat meg kell varrni, és ki kell mosni, mielőtt felveszed őket. Ha nem így teszel, megfázhatsz vagy megbetegedhetsz, ami hátráltatja a gyakorlást. Bár nem szabad túl sokat törődnünk a testi jóérzésekkel, a ruházat, az étel és az alvás hiánya az úgynevezett „három elégtelenség”, amelyek a gyakorlót szenvedésnek [problémáknak] teszik ki.

Ne egyél élő ételt, kemény ételt, vagy romlott ételt. Az ilyen rossz ételek hascsikarást okoznak, lázat okoznak és kellemetlen érzéseket a testtudatban, és ez nehézzé teszi az ülést. Ne merülj gazdag ételek élvezetébe sem, nem csak mert rossz a testtudatnak, hanem mert egyszerűen kapzsiság. Végső soron szerzetesi életet élsz, ezért ne érdekeljen az íz. És amúgy is, ha túl sok evés után ülsz, betegnek fogod érezni magad [rosszul leszel]. Legyen az étkezés akár kicsi vagy nagy, várj egy kicsit utána mielőtt ülsz. A szerzeteseknek visszafogottnak kell lenniük az étkezésben, tehát adagjuk legyen kétharmada annak, amit meg tudnak enni. Mindenféle egészséges étket, szezámot, jam gyökeret szabad enni. Ezek nagyon fontosak a testtudat tisztaságához.

 

4

Ha zazenben ülsz, ne támaszkodj falnak, meditációs övet ne használj, még papírfalnak [mozgatható falnak, vagyis tolóajtónak] se támaszkodj. Továbbá ne ülj szeles helyen, ne ülj magas helyen, ezek mind betegséghez vezethetnek.

Amikor ülsz, akár melegnek vagy hidegnek is érezheted a tested, akár kényelmetlennek vagy kényelmesnek, merevnek vagy lazának, nehéznek vagy könnyűnek, vagy néha zavartnak, amely érzések mind abból erednek, hogy a tudatod nincs harmóniában, és nincs egyensúlyban a légzés energiája. A következő módon rendezd a légzésed: nyisd ki kicsit a szád, engedd a hosszú lélegzetnek, hogy hosszú legyen, a rövidnek, hogy rövid legyen, és így magától harmonizálódik. Figyeld addig, amíg fel nem kél a jelen levés érzése, és lélegezz természetesen. Ezek után folytasd az orron át légzést. Az elme érezheti úgy, hogy süllyed vagy lebeg, tűnhet tompának vagy élesnek. Néha átláthatsz a falakon, vagy bele láthatsz a testbe, esetleg láthatod a buddhákat vagy a bódhiszattvák formáit, és néha azt hiheted, hogy érted az összes szútrát és a kommentárokat, ám ezek a különleges tudati betegségek a tudat és a lélegzet diszharmóniájából erednek.

Ha ez történik ülj, és helyezd az elméd az öledbe. Ha a tudatod ellustulna, figyelj [irányítsd a tudatod] a fejed fölé vagy a szemed elé. Ha a tudat elkalandozna, fókuszálj az orrod hegyére, vagy a tandenre. Ha ezzel végeztél, a figyelmed a tenyeredben nyugszik. Ülj sokáig, és ne akard megnyugtatni az elméd, így természetes módon megtisztul a zavaroktól.

Annak ellenére, hogy a tudat elnyugtatásának módszerei ősiek, ne olvass róluk, ne írj róluk, ne hallgass róluk. Ezek csak zavarossá teszik az elmédet. Alapvetően minden, ami megzavarja a testtudatot, betegséget okoz.

Ne ülj ott, ahol tüzek vannak, áradások, szelek, vagy banditák, se az óceán partján, se kocsmához vagy bordélyhoz közel, se ott hol özvegyek vagy szüzek laknak, se olyan helyen, ahol énekelnek és zenélnek. Ne lakj közel királyokhoz, miniszterekhez vagy hatalmas illetve gazdag családokhoz, olyan emberekhez, akiknek sok a vágya, olyanokhoz, akik hírnévre illetve vagyonra vágynak, vagy olyanokhoz akik szeretnek ok nélkül vitatkozni.

Annak ellenére, hogy a nagy buddhista ceremóniák a nagy kolostorokban vannak, az aki elkötelezett a gyakorlás [zazen] felé, jobb ha nem keveredik ilyenekbe [sem]. Ne kedveld a dharma tanítását sem, mert ez zavarhoz és a figyelem elterelődéséhez vezet, ne leld örömöd a nagy gyülekezetekben, és ne futkoss tanítványok után. Ne próbálj túl sok mindent tanulni és gyakorolni.

 

5

Ne ülj olyan helyen, ahol túl fényes, túl sötét, ahol túl hideg, vagy túl meleg van, ne ülj ott, ahol az élvhajhászat vagy az aggodalom lakik. Inkább lakj olyan kolostorban, hol igaz tanító van. Hatolj be mélyen a hegyekbe és völgyekbe, gyakorolj ott, ahol tiszta a víz és öregek a hegyek. Tisztítsd meg az elméd egy folyam mellett, vagy egy fa alatt, és fáradhatatlanul figyeld a mozdulatlan elmét, amely az útra lép.

A szőnyegnek jól párnázottnak kell lenni, hogy kényelmesen ülhess. A gyakorlás helyét mindig tisztán kell tartani, égess füstölőt és tégy virág felajánlás a Dharma védelmezőknek, a buddháknak és bódhiszattváknak, ezáltal védve lesz a gyakorlásod. Tegyél Buddha szobrot, vagy bódhiszattva szobrot, vagy arhat szobrot az oltárra, és a démonok nem fognak háborgatni.

Időzz mindig a hatalmas együttérzésben és a zazen határtalan erejét ajánld a lények üdvére. Ne válj arrogánssá, nagyképűvé és ne légy büszke arra, hogy mennyire érted a tanításokat. Ez a külső úti [nem buddhista] emberek és a hétköznapi [világi] emberek módszere [útja]. Tartsd meg fogadalmaid elkötelezetten, fogadd meg, hogy szabadjára engeded a felébredést, és csak ülj, semmit se csinálj, ez a zen tanulmányozásának útja.

Mosd meg szemed és lábad, tartsd a testtudatot nyugodtan, a viselkedésed harmóniában. Vetkőzd le világias érzelmeidet, és ne ragaszkodj alsóbbrendű érzelmekhez az úttal kapcsolatban. Bár senkitől nem szabad sajnálni a tanítást, ne beszélj róla, csak ha kérdeznek, ha kérdeznek is, maradj néma. Az első három alkalommal hallgass, és ha negyedszer is kérdeznek [még ezután is érdekli őket] teljes szívből, adj nekik tanítást. Ha tízszer kívánnál szólni, kilencszer maradj csendben, olyan ez, mintha moha nőne a szádra, olyan ez, mint a legyező decemberben, olyan ez, mint a szélcsengő, amely a levegőben lóg, nem érdekli a szél iránya, ilyenek az út emberei. Ne használd önnön nyereségedre a Dharmát, ne használd arra az utat, hogy fontosnak tüntesd fel magad, ezt nagyon az eszedbe kell vésned.

 

6

A zazen nem a tanításon, a gyakorláson és a megvalósításon nyugszik, ehelyett ezt a három aspektust egyesíti önmagában. A megvalósítás mérése a megvilágosodásról alkotott képen múlik, ez nem a zazen szíve. A gyakorlás alapja a nehéz feladatok, ez nem a zazen szíve. A tanítás alapja a gonosztól való megszabadulás és a jó gyakorlása, ez nem a zazen szíve. Van tanítás a zenben, de nem a szokásos tanítás. Sokkal inkább egyenes rámutatás, az út egyszerű megtapasztalása, amely tanítást a teljes testel történő beszéd adja, ezen szavak [ugyanis] nem rendelkeznek sem mondatokkal, sem fejezetekkel. A nézetek és elképzelések kimerülnek abban az egy szóban, amely átjárja a tíz irányt anélkül, hogy akár egy hajszál is megmozdulna tőle, ez a valódi technikája a buddháknak és a pátriárkáknak. Habár azt mondjuk „gyakorlás” ez nem olyan gyakorlás, amit végezni lehetne. Úgy mondják, a test nem csinál semmit, a száj nem recitál, az elme nem gondolja át mindezt, a hat érzékszerv magára van hagyatva önön tisztaságában és hatástalanságában, tehát nem a hallgatók tizenhat lépéses útja [a belátás ösvénye, a négy nemes igazság négy különböző szinten], nem is a tizenkét ok-okozati láncolat megismerésének ösvénye ez, mert az azoknak való, akik gyakorlata az elszigeteltségen alapszik, és nem a hat tökéletesség és a bódhiszattva tevékenységek gyakorlása. Minden erőfeszítés nélkül való, ezért nevezik megvilágosodásnak, vagy felébredésnek. Puszta időzés az ön-élvezetben, a szamádhiban, amely minden buddha sajátja, játékos vándorlás a béke négy gyakorlata és az áldás közt, amely nyitottságot ad. Ez a magasztos és elképzelhetetlen gyakorlata a buddháknak és a pátriárkáknak. Bár megvalósításról beszélünk, de ez a megvalósítás nem „megvalósítás”. Ez a magasztos szamádhi gyakorlás, amely által megismerhető a meg-nem-született, a meg-nem-kreált, és a spontánul-fel-nem-támadó megismerés, ez a fényes kapu, amely feltárul azok előtt, akik áthaladnak a gyakorláson keresztül, számukra minden nehézség nélkül születik. Ez meghaladja a szent és profán fogalmait, meghaladja a zavarodottságot, és meghaladja a bölcsességet. Ez az el-nem-nyomott-megvilágosodás, amely igaz természetünk.

A zazen a fegyelmen sem nyugszik, a gyakorláson sem, a bölcsességen sem, ez a három mind benne foglaltatik. A fegyelmet általában úgy szokták tekinteni, mint a rossz cselekedetek elhagyása, és a gonoszság megfékezése, a zazen elutasít minden kettőséget, visszautasítja a jelenségekről való elmélkedéseket, elfelejti Buddha útját és a világi utat is, hagyd magad mögött érzéseidet az útról [ösvényről] és ugyanígy a szokásos [hétköznapi] dolgokról [is]. Ha minden szembenállást [dualitást] magad mögött hagysz, nem zavarhat meg. Ez az tudat-föld forma nélküli fegyelme. A gyakorlat általában a töretlen gyakorlást jelenti. A zazen elhagyja a tudatot és a testet, elhagyja a zavarodottságot és a megértést, felrázhatatlan, aktivitás nélküli, nincsenek benne illúziók, mégis olyan akár egy idióta, egy bolond, olyan akár a hegy, olyan akár az óceán, nincs benne nyoma sem a mozgásnak, sem a nyugalomnak, a gyakorlás nem a gyakorlás, mert nem célja a gyakorlás, ezért nevezik nagy gyakorlásnak. A bölcsességet általában úgy értelmezik, hogy tiszta ítélőképesség. A zazenben minden tudás eltűnik önmagától, a tudat és a megkülönböztetés örökre feledésbe merül, a test bölcsesség szemének nincs megkülönböztető funkciója, de tisztán látja a megvilágosodás eszenciáját, eredetétől fogva mentes a zavarodottságtól, elvágja a koncepciókat, nyitottan és tisztán ragyog be mindent, ez a bölcsesség nem bölcsesség, mert e bölcsességnek nincs nyoma, ezért nevezik nagy bölcsességnek. A tanítás, amelyeket a buddhák teljes életükön át tovább adtak, csak a fegyelemről, a gyakorlásról és a bölcsességről szóltak. A zazenben nincs olyan fegyelem, ami ne lenne megtartva, nincs gyakorlat, amely ne lenne gyakorolva, és nincs bölcsesség, ami ne lenne megvalósítva, a zavar démonait legyőzve, hozzájutván az úthoz, a dharma kerekét megforgatva visszaér a nyomtalanságba, minden ennek erejéből fakad. A szidhik és az elképzelhetetlen tevékenységek, örökkön fénylenek kihirdetvén a tant.

 

7

A zen gyakorlata a zazen. Az zazen gyakorlásához keress egy csendes helyet, és teríts le egy vastag gyékényt, ne hagyd hogy szél, füst, eső vagy köd érjen. Legyen akkora helyed, hogy elférjen a térded. A régi időkben voltak olyanok, akik a párnájuk helyett gyémánt trónon és nagy köveken ültek. A hely, amelyet kiválasztasz, ne legyen túl világos nappal, se túl sötét éjszaka. Legyen meleg télen és hűvös nyáron, ez a kulcs. Engedd el a tudatot, az intellektust és a tudatosságot, hagyd az emlékezést, a gondolkodást és pusztán szemlélődj, ne próbáld Buddhát elképzelni. Ne töprengj azon, hogy milyen gyengén, vagy jól haladsz. Értsd meg, hogy az idő olyan értékes, mintha épp a tüzet fogott hajad próbálnád eloltani.

Buddha egyenesen ült, Bódhidharma egy fal felé fordult. Mindketten teljes szívből gyakoroltak és elkötelezettek voltak. Shishuang olyan volt, mint egy kiszáradt korhadt fa. Rujing figyelmeztetett, hogy ne ülj álmosan, és azt mondta: „A csak-ülés az egyetlen, amire szükséged van. Nem kell még füstölőket égetned és felajánlásokat sem tenned, a buddhák nevein meditálnod, bűnbánatot gyakorolnod, az iratokat tanulmányoznod, vagy recitációs szertartásokat végezned.”

Amikor zazent gyakorolsz, viselj keszát <kivéve az első és az utolsó részében az éjszakának, amikor a nappali beosztás nem érvényes>, ne légy felelőtlen. Az ülésednek egy saku [1 saku kb. 30 cm] és két szun [1 szun kb. 3 cm] vastagnak és három saku hat szun átmérőjűnek kell lennie. Ne tedd a combod alá, csak közép combtól a gerinc kezdetéig, éppen így ültek a buddhák és az ősök [pátriárkák].

Ülhetsz teljes lótuszban vagy fél lótuszban. A lótuszüléshez tedd a jobb lábad a bal combodra, és a bal lábad a jobb combodra, lazítsd meg a köpenyed, de tartsd rendben, tedd a jobb kezed a bal bokádra, a balt pedig a jobbra, a hüvelykujjak összeérnek, közel a testhez a köldök magasságában. Ülj egyenesen anélkül, hogy jobbra vagy balra, előre vagy hátra dőlnél. A füleknek a vállakkal, az orrnak a köldökkel kell egy vonalban lennie, tedd a nyelved a szájpadlásodhoz, és lélegezz az orrodon át. A szájnak csukva kell lennie.

A szemeknek nyitva kell lenni, de nem túlságosan, azonban túlságosan lesütni sem szabad. Lélegezz a szádon mélyet egyszer vagy kétszer. Stabilan ülve, hét vagy nyolc körkörös mozdulattal nyugtasd meg a tested. Ülj egyenesen és készenlétben.

Ebben a helyzetben gondolj a gondolat nélküliségre, légy a gondolat előtt [előzd meg a gondolatot], ez a zazen sarkalatos pontja. Zúzd szét a gátakat és ismerkedj meg az éber jelenléttel. Amikor fel akarsz kelni a nyugalomból, tedd a kezed a térdedhez, hintázz hetet vagy nyolcat egyre nagyobb kilengéssel, lélegezz ki a szádon, tedd a kezeid a padlóra és állj fel gyengéden az ülésből, sétálj lassan jobbra és balra körözve.

 

Lezárás

Ha zsibbadtság vagy álmosság kerít hatalmába az ülés közben, mozdítsd meg a tested, és nyisd ki jobban a szemed, vagy helyezd tudatod [figyelmed] a fejed fölé, vagy a szemöldökök közé. Ha még mindig nem frissültél fel, masszírozd a szemeid illetve a tested. Ha még ez sem ébreszt fel, állj fel és sétálj, mindig az óramutató járásával megegyezően. Ha megtettél már száz lépést, bizonyára nem leszel már fáradt. Sétálni úgy kell, hogy minden lépést fél lélegzet alatt teszel meg. Sétálj sétálás nélkül, csöndben és mozdulat nélkül. Ha még a kinhin gyakorlat után sem érzed magad frissnek, mosd meg a szemed és a homlokod hideg vízzel, vagy recitáld a bódhiszattva három elvét. Csinálj valamit, csak ne aludj el. Légy tudatában a születés és halál fontos ügyének, és a gyorsaságnak meg az állandótlanságnak, hogyan is aludhatnál, amikor az utat látó szemed még csukva van. Ha a tompaság és süllyedés felmerül újra, mondogasd: „A tompaság mélyen gyökerezik, így hát tompaságba vagyok burkolódzva. Mikor tűnik el ez a tompaság? A buddhák és ősök [pátriárkák] együttérzése oszlassa el ezt a sötétséget és kínt.”

Ha a tudat kalandozik, irányítsd figyelmed az orrod hegyére és fókuszálván számold a ki- és belégzéseket. Ha ez sem segít, idézz fel egy mondást, tartsd a tudatodban, például: „Hogyan keletkezik az olyanság?” vagy „Ha nem kel fel gondolat, mi a ragaszkodás? Méru hegy!” vagy „Miért jött Bódhidharma nyugatról? A ciprus az udvaron.” Az ilyen fajta gondolatok helyénvalóak. Ha a zavar folytatódik, ülj tovább és koncentrálj arra a pontra, ahol a lélegzet véget ér, és ahol a szem örökre becsukódik, és arra a helyre, ahol a gyermek még nem fogant meg, arra ahol egy elképzelés sem kelhet fel. Amikor a kétféle üresség értelme feltárul, amely az önvaló és a dolgok megjelenése, a zavar bizonyára elül.

Ha a meditálás után gondolkodás nélkül mozdulsz a nyugalomból, minden hezitálás nélkül cselekszel, az a pillanat egy kóan, amikor a gyakorlás és a megvalósítás megkülönböztetés nélküli, akkor a kóan a jelen lévő pillanat. Az, ami megjelenik, minden jel előtt, az a másik oldalon az idő üressége, ez a buddhák és pátriárkák csodálatos művének magja, csak ez az egy.

Hagyd hát a dolgokat, pihenj és szűnj meg, hűlj ki, haladj át számtalan éven ebben a pillanatban, légy kihűlt hamu, elszáradt fa, egy elégett füstölő egy elhagyatott templomban, egy darab folt nélküli selyem. Ez az őszinte kívánságom.

Ez a Zazen Yojinki [Feljegyzés ahhoz, hogyan legyünk körültekintőek a zazenben] vége.

 

 


傳光錄
Denkō-roku
A lámpás átadása (Szemelvények)
Fordította:
Szigeti György
in: Naparcú Buddha : a zen szellemisége és gyakorlata; [ford., írta, szerk., vál.] Szigeti György. [Budapest] : A Tan Kapuja : Vizsom, [2005], 186 p.
(I. fejezet / 2. Tanka Sidzsun, 9. Singecu Szeirjó, 13. Dóan Kansi, 18. Dógen, 52. Rjódzan Enkan, 82. Szecsó Csikan, 92. Daruma alfejezetek; itt az eredeti mű sorrendjében szerepelnek)
Forrás: Denkoroku: the record of transmission of light, translated by Kosen Nishiyama (西山廣宣 Nishiyama Kōsen, 1939-), Tokyo : Japan Publication (distributor), c1994, 266 p
.

A címfordításban Szigeti összetéveszti a 傳光錄 Denkō-roku-t (A fény átadása) egy másik antológiával, a 傳燈錄 Dentō-roku-val (A lámpás átadása).
(Terebess Gábor megjegyzése)

92. [28. pátriárka:] Daruma

Daruma 440 körül született Indiában, Kósi király harmadik fiaként.
Gyermekkorától fogva buddhista képzésben részesült. Tanítója a hu-
szonhetedik indiai pátriárka, Pradnyádhára volt. A király egy napon
a palotájába hívatta a mestert, hogy ellenőriztesse vele a három herceg
bölcsességét. A mester a királytól kapott drágakövet magasba emelve
megkérdezte:
- Van-e ehhez fogható érték?

Miután az első két szülött fiú kifejtette véleményét, Daruma így
beszélt:
- Ez a drágakő csupán világi érték. Az igazság ékköve a legértéke-
sebb kincs. Noha ez a drágakő csillog-villog a napfényben, mégsem
hasonlítható a bölcsesség ragyogásához. Noha ez a drágakő olyan
tiszta, hogy át lehet rajta látni, mégsem hasonlítható a megvilágosodás
tisztaságához.

A mester tisztán felismerte Darumában az utódját. Néhány nap-
pal később a palota kertjében megszólította:
- Fiam, mit tekintünk formátlannak?

- A meg nem születettet - válaszolta Daruma.

- Mi szüli a világ jelenségeit?

- A tudat.

- Mi a legmagasabb rendű dolog, amivel rendelkezünk? - hang-
zott el a harmadik kérdés.

- Az igazi természetünk.

A király halála után Daruma a mester mellé szegődött. Közel
negyven éven keresztül tanult Pradnyádhára mellett, majd a mester
tanácsára elutazott Kínába, ahová a legenda szerint 520 körül érkezett
meg. Amint hajója kikötött, azonnal a Liang-dinasztia Vu nevű csá-
szárához vezették találkozóra.

- Számtalan templomot építettem, szentiratok ezreit másoltat-
tam le, szerzetesek tömegét látom el élelemmel. Milyen érdemeket
szereztem? - kérdezte a császár.

- Semmilyet - válaszolta Daruma.

- Mi a szent igazság legfőbb jelentése?

- Az igazság nem szent, hanem ragyogóan tiszta, mint az ég.

- Ki vagy te? - kérdezte a császár.

- Nem tudom - felelte Daruma, majd sarkon fordult és elhagyta
a palotát.

Nem sokkal később a Sórin-kolostor közelében egy barlangba
költözött, ahol kilenc éven keresztül meditált. Három évvel később
megjelent egy Eka nevű szerzetes a barlang előtt. A sűrű hóesésben
tanítás után epekedett. Daruma csöndesen elmélkedett, Eka levágta
a karját, és a mester elé dobva kifakadt:

- Nyughatatlan a tudatom! Békítsd meg!

- Nézz magadba és keresd meg a tudatodat.

- Nem találom sehol!

- Akkor már meg is nyugodott - szögezte le Daruma.

Eka az elkövetkezendő hat évet Daruma mellett töltötte, később
ő lett a mester egyetlen örököse.

Daruma 529 körül hunyt el. A legenda szerint halála után három
évvel feltámadt és visszatért Indiába. A zen hagyományban haszná-
latos egy kóan, mely így szól: "Hol van most Daruma?"

A zen buddhisták és a kung-fu harcosok milliói Darumát tekintik
szellemi vezetőjüknek. Emellett szárnos legenda szereplője. Az elbe-
szélések szerint Daruma hozta a teát Kínába, a zennel és a kung-fuval
együtt. "A legenda szerint egyszer meditáció közben elaludt, és ettől
annyira dühbe gurult, hogy levágta a szempilláit. Daruma földre hullt
szempilláiból kelt ki az első teacserje. Ettől kezdve a tea óvja a zen
szerzeteseket az álmosságtól, élénkíti és megtisztítja értelmüket, ezért
mondják, hogy 'a zen és a tea íze egy.' Egy másik legenda szerint Da-
ruma addig ült meditációban, míg a lábai le nem váltak. Innen szár-
mazik a japán Daruma-baba kedves szimbolizmusa, amely lábatlan
gömböcként ábrázolja Darumát."

A hatodik században Daruma zenje egyedülálló volt. Tanítóbe-
szédeiben kíméletlenül kritizálja a buddhizmus szellemiségét: "Sák-
jamuni tíz legkiválóbb tanítványa közül Ánanda volt a legértelmesebb.
Ám a Buddhát igazából nem ismerte, mert csak a szavait véste emlé-
kezetébe. Az arhatok" nem ismerik a Buddhát. Belátták, hogy szünte-
lenül befelé kell figyelniük, de kötődéseik által rabságban sínylődnek.
Halandó lények ők, ki vannak téve a születésnek és halálnak."

Daruma legfontosabb tanítása szerint ez a tudat a Buddha, illetve
a buddhaság kizárólag az igazi természetünk meglátása révén érhető
el. Tanítása erre a két tézisre épül.

 

13. [41. pátriárka:] Dóan Kansi

Dóan Kansi a Szótó hagyomány 41. pátriárkája volt. Megvilágosodá-
sáról A lámpás átadása című könyv mesél:

Egy napon Dóan Kansi így szólt mesteréhez, Dóan Dohihoz:
- Az ősi bölcsek azt mondották: "A mi szeretetünk más, mint
a világi emberek szeretete." Mi az igazi szeretet?

- Az ember csak akkor tud igazán és őszintén szeretni, ha folya-
matosan tapasztalja a tudat igazi lényegér - válaszolta Dóan Dohi.

Dóan Kansi hirtelen elérte a megvilágosodást.

Dóan Dohi halála előtt összehívta szerzeteseit, és így beszélt hoz-
zájuk a Buddha-csarnokban:
- Milyen tanítást adott át a Buddha Mahákásjapának a Gyerme-
kek pagodája előtt? Daruma a Szúdzan-hegyen élt a Sórindzsi bar-
langban. Milyen tanítást adott át a hóban térdelő Ekának?

A szerzetesek néma csöndben álltak, a mester ismét kérdezett.

Miután harmadjára sem kapott választ kérdésére, Dóan Kansi elő-
lépett, és így felelt:
- Az egyedüli igaz tudat áthatja a világmindenséget. Ez az igaz
tudat végtelen tér és idő. Ez az igaz tudat mindnyájunk sajátja.

Dóan Dohi átadta tanítványának, Dóan Kansinak a Tant, és rá-
bízta a szerzetesi közösség vezetését.

 

52. [42. pátriárka:] Rjódzan Enkan

Rjódzan Enkan a Szótó hagyomány 42. pátriárkája volt. Megvilágoso-
dásáról A lámpás átadása című könyv mesél:

Rjódzan egy napon megjelent Dóan Kansi mester színe előtt, aki
megkérdezte:

- Mi a legfontosabb dolga egy zen papnak?

Rjódzan nem tudott válaszolni.

- Ha az út gyakorlója nem tisztítja a tudatát, mérhetetlen szenve-
dést kell, hogy elviseljen. Most kérdezz engem! - mondta Dóan Kansi.

- Mi a legfontosabb dolga egy zen papnak?

- Bensőséges kapcsolatban lenni a tudat igazi lényegével, mi
több, buddhává válni - válaszolta Dóan Kansi.

Rjódzan hirtelen elérte a megvilágosodást.

 

2. [46. pátriárka:] Tanka Sidzsun

Tanka Sidzsun a Szótó' hagyomány 46. pátriárkája volt. Megvilágoso-
dásáról A lámpás átadása círnű könyv mesél:

Egy napon Tanka Sidzsun megjelent Fujó Dókai mester színe
előtt és megkérdezte:

- Hogyan tudná tökéletesen kifejezni egy mondattal a buddha-
tudatot, amit a pátriárkák egymásnak adnak át ősidők óta?

- Ha a buddha-tudatot egyetlen mondattal próbálnánk kifejezni,
akkor a Szótó hagyomány kihaIna - felelte Fujó Dókai mester.

Tanka Sidzsun hirtelen elérte a megvilágosodást.

 

9. [47. pátriárka:] Singecu Szeirjó

Singecu Szeirjó a Szótó hagyomány 47. pátriárkája volt. Megvilágoso-
dásáról A lámpás átadása című könyv mesél:

Egy napon Singecu Szeirjó megjelent Tanka Sidzsun mester
színe előtt, aki megkérdezte:
- Mi az igazi én?

Még mielőtt Szeirjó válaszol hatott volna, Tanka így folytatta:
- Illúzió rabja vagy. Vonulj vissza celládba.

Egy napon aztán Szeirjó felkapaszkodott a Hó-hegyre. Mikor
visszatért Tanka kolostorába, és megállt a mester színe előtt, hirtelen
elérte a nagy megvilágosodást.

Egy napon egy szerzetes megjelent Singecu Szeirjó mester színe
előtt és megkérdezte:
- Mi az igazi én?

- Az igazi én már azelőtt létezett, hogy megfogantáI. Még a bölcs
szentek sem tudnák szavakba foglalni lényegét. Az igazi én meg nem
született és el nem múló, mindenek előtti, és ezért nevezik igazi érmek
- válaszolta Singecu Szeirjó mester.

 

82. [49. pátriárka:] Szecso Csikan

Szecso Csikan a Szótó hagyomány 49. pátriárkája volt. Megvilágoso-
dásáról A lámpás átadása círnű könyv mesél:

Egy napon Tendó Szókagu, a Szótó hagyomány 48. pátriárkája
bejelentette, hogy tanítóbeszédet tart a Buddha-csarnokban. Szecso
Csikan a többi szerzetessel együtt tisztes csöndben helyet foglalt.
A mester felült aszószékbe, és beszélni kezdett:

- A Buddha tanai sejtelmesek voltak, Kásjapa nem rejtett véka
alá semmit.

Szecso, felfogván a szavak mély jelentését, elsírta magát:
- Miért nem osztották meg velem ezt a mély tanítást mostanáig?
Miután Tendó Szókagu befejezte tanítóbeszédét, magához hívat-
ta Szecsót és megkérdezte:
- Miért sírtad el magad?

- A Buddha tanai sejtelmesek voltak, Kásjapa nem rejtett véka
alá semmit - válaszolta Szecsó.

Amikor Szókagu átadta Szecsónak a Tant, azt mondta:
- Ungo Dójó megjósolta működésedet.

 

18. [51. pátriárka:] Dógen

Dógen a Szótó hagyomány 51. pátriárkája és a japán Szótó iskola meg-
alapítója volt. Megvilágosodásáról A lámpás átadása című könyv mesél:

Egy hajnaion Tendó Nyodzsó zen mester tanító beszédet tartott
a szerzetesek számára: "A zazen gyakorlat lényege a test és tudat fel-
szabadítása." Dógen a tanítást hallva hirtelen elérte a nagy megvilágo-
sodást. A tanítóbeszéd után belépett a mester cellájába, és meggyújtott
egy szál füstölőt.

- Miért gyújtasz tömjént? - kérdezte Tendó Nyodzsó.

- A test és tudat felszabadult - válaszolta Dógen.

- A test és tudat fel van szabadulva.

- A mester nem adja egykönnyen a megvilágosodás pecsétjét - fűzte
hozzá Dógen.

- Nem adom egykönnyen a megvilágosodás pecsétjét.

- Mi ennek az igazi jelentése? - kérdezte Dógen.

- A test és tudat már fel van szabadulva - válaszolta a mester.

Dógen mélyen meghajolt a mester felé, aki így folytatta:
- Fel van szabadulva, fel van szabadulva.

Dógen mester 1200-ban látta meg a napvilágot a Gendzsi család
sarjaként. Őt tekintik Murakami császár kilencedik generációs leszár-
mazottjának.

Születésekor az udvari asztrológus azt mondotta:
- A csecsemő szent ember jelét viseli magán. Kettős pupillája
nagy erőt jelent. Az ősi feljegyzések szerint egy szent lény világra jötte
az édesanya korai halálát jelenti. A feljegyzések alapján arra következ-
tetek, hogy az édesanya hét év múlva fogja elhagyni az élők sorát.

Dógen édesanyja nem ijedt meg a szavak hallatán. Mélységes
együttérzéssel kezdte gyermekét felnevelni. Az udvari asztrológus jós-
lata végül is beigazolódott, azzal az eltéréssel, hogy az édesanya gyer-
meke születése után nyolc évvel hunyt el.

A kisgyermek kimagasló intelligenciájára korán felfigyeltek az
udvari tudósok. Alig múlt négy éves, amikor a kínai költő Li-csiao
Száz vers című könyvét kiolvasta. Hétéves korában a saját versei gyűj-
teményéből olvasott fel, ezeket a verseket kínai stílusban írta, szeretett
édesapjának ajánlva.

Egy év múlva súlyos csapás érte az előkelő családot. Dógen édes-
anyja elhunyt. A temetési szertartás közben a kisfiú, megpillantván az
égő tömjéneket, rádöbbent az élet mulandóságára. Azonnal felébredt
benne a vágy a megszabadulásra. A következő év tavaszán Vaszubandhu
Abhidharma-kósa című könyvében a következő mondatra lelt: "Az
egyik buddhista tudós azt mondotta: Olyan bölcs, mint Mondzsu.
Ő a nagy szekér'9 legkimagaslóbb egyénisége." Ezek a szavak az ifjú
Dógent még szorgalmasabb tanulásra ösztönözték.

Az elárvult kisfiút Moroie nagyúr adoptálta, aki Japán miniszter-
elnöke volt. Amikor a kisfiú betöltötte a tizenharmadik életévét, Mo-
roie nagyúr ünnepséget rendeztetett annak örömére, hogy adoptált fia
felnőttkorba lépett. Szándéka szerint Dógennek hivatali rangot kellett
volna viselnie az udvarban, ő azonban titokban elhagyta otthonát és
felment a Hiei-hegyre, ahol Rjókan Hógen élt.

Rjókan Hógen a Tendai iskola-v mestere és Dógen édesanyjának
nagybátyja volt. Nagy meglepetéssel fogadta ifjú rokonát:

- Most ünnepeltük felnőttkorba lépésedet. Néhai édesapád biz-
tosan elszomorodna tetted láttán, Moroie nagyúrról nem is beszélve.
Mit tudsz mentségedül felhozni?

- Drága édesanyám elhunyta előtt arra kért, hogy mondjak le
a világi hívságokról és szegődjek szerzetesnek. Az ő kérését teljesítem.
Nem vesztegethetem időmet világi ügyekre. Le akarok mondani min-
den világi hívságról. és kizárólag az út gyakorlásának akarom szentel-
ni életem. Ezzel akarom kifejezni mélységes hálámat drága édes-
anyámnak, nagymamámnak és nagynénémnek. Én már eldöntöttem,
lemondok a világi hívságokról, és szerzetesnek szegődöm.

Rjókan könnyezve hallgatta végig ifjú rokona válaszát, majd ta-
nítványául fogadta, és elküldte Szendokóhoz, aki a Bölcsesség-völgy-
ben lévő templomában élt.

A következő év tavaszán Dógen szerzetesi fogadalmakat tett
Kóen apát kolostorában. Négy éven keresztül tanulmányozta a Tendai
iskola tanait és végezte meditációs gyakorlatait. Tizennyolc éves ko-
rára kiolvasta a teljes buddhista kánont.

Dógent azonban kétség gyötörte, mert nem találta meg a választ
a buddhizmus igazi lényegére, ezért felkereste Kóin apátot, édesanyja
nagybátyját.

- A Tendai hagyomány tanításának legfőbb értelme, hogy meg-
találjuk a választ a buddhizmus igazi lényegére - magyarázta Kóin
apát. - Ez a tanítás a kiváló Dengjó és Dzsikaku mesterektől szárma-
zik. Én nem tudom a kérdésedet megválaszolni. Hallomásból tudom,
hogy a kiváló Daruma mester azért ment Kínába, hogy átadja a meg-
világosodás pecsétjét. Tanítása azóta elterjedt és zen néven lett ismert.
Kétségeid eloszlatása végett látogasd meg Eiszai mestert, a Kennin-
templom apátját. Ha tőle sem kapsz kielégítő választ kérdésedre, utazz
el Kínába.

1217. év őszén Dógen ellátogatott a Kennin-ternplomba, és hiva-
talosan belépett a Rinzai iskola tagjai közé. A kolostori szabályzatban
leírtak szerint: "Az újonnan érkezett tanítványoknak legalább három
évet kell eltölteniük a szentély területén belül papnövendékként, hogy
teljes felavatást nyerjenek a hagyomány tagjai sorába." Dógen ennek
ellenére azonnali felavatásban részesült. A Kennin-templom vezetője
akkoriban Eiszai tanítványa, Mjózen volt.

Mjózen a közérthető, a titkos és a rneditációs tanok képviselője
volt. A Kennin-templom feljegyzései szerint Eiszai egyedül őt tekin-
tette tanai igaz örökösének, és arra buzdított mindenkit, aki a megsza-
badulás útját járta, hogy Mjózennél keressenek választ kérdéseikre.

Egy napon Dógen belépett Mjózen mester cellájába, aki beavat-
ta őt a bódhiszattva fogadalmakba, a köntös és a csésze szimbólumai­
nak jelentésébe, a 134 tiszta gyakorlat mibenlétébe, a sikan meditáció"
módszerébe. Továbbá átadta a Rinzai iskola tanítási stílusát és a három
hagyomány II igaz tanítását. Ezzel Dógen Mjózen egyedüli örököse lett.

1223. év tavaszán Dógen megemlékezési szertartás végzett az Eiszai
tiszteletére állított sztúpa előtt, majd elhagyta a Kennin-templomot.
Nem sokkal később elindult Kínába, hogy buddhista mesterekkel
találkozzon.

Dógen számos hegyi kolostorban élő mestert látogatott meg, de
nem talált megfelelő szellemi vezetőt, ezért elhatározta, hogy hazatér
Japánba. Ám az élet úgy hozta, hogy összetalálkozott Rósin mesterrel,
aki arra buzdította az út keresőjét, hogy keresse fel a Szung-dinasztia
kiváló tanítóját, Nyodzsó zen mestert.

Eltelt másfél év. Muszai Rjóha mester bejelentette visszavonu-
lását. Nyodzsó mester a Tendó-hegyre költözött. Dógen elérkezettnek
látta az időt, hogy találkozzon a kiváló tanítóval. Önteltségét félretéve
mélyen meghajolt a mester színe előtt, és tanítványául szegődött. Egy
napon a következő levelet írta a mesternek:

"Fiatal fiúként felébredt bennem a vágya buddha-tudat keresé-
sére. Számtalan tanító és mester keze alatt tanulmányoztam a budd-
hista tanokat Japánban, és többé-kevésbé megértettem azokat.
A buddhizmus igazi lényegére azonban nem jöttem rá, és most két-
ségek gyötörnek a tanokat illetően. Alkalmam adódott találkozni a ki-
váló Eiszai mesterrel, aki beavatott a Rinzai hagyomány tanaiba. Most
néhai mesterem tanítványát, Mjózent tekintem szellemi tanítómnak.
Azért jöttem Kínába, hogy buddhista mesterekkel találkozzam, és
most alkalmam adódott megismerni az ön tanítását. Nagyon örülök,
hogy így alakult a sorsom. Kérem, fogadjon személyes találkozón
cellájában, hogy részesülhessek tanításában. Alázatosan kérem, hadd
látogassam meg önt nappal és éjszaka egyaránt, és nézze el faragat-
lanságomat. Hadd tehessek fel kérdéseket a buddhista tanítás lényegét
illetően. Ismételten kérem, hogy adjon esélyt a buddha-tudat kereső-
jének a tanulásra."

Nyodzsó mester a levél elolvasása után magához hívatta Dógent,
és így szólt:

- Édes fiam, mostantól kezdve nappal és éjszaka egyaránt, kesza
nélkül, vagy keszát viselve, nyitva áll előtted cellám ajtaja. Habozás
nélkül kérdezhetsz tőlem, igyekszem segítségedre lenni.

Dógen attól fogva bármikor felkereshette a mestert a cellájában,
hogy a buddhista tanítás lényegéről faggassa. A mester egy napon
felkérte maga mellé szolgának, Dógen azonban elutasította a kérést,
mondván, hogy idegen országból jött fickó nem szolgálhat Nyodzsó
mester mellett, mert különben hatalmas felzúdulás kerekedne a kolos-
tor falain belül. Engedélyt kapott, hogy továbbra is felkereshesse
a mestert a cellájában, hogy a Buddha tanairól kérdezze.

Egy hajnalon Nyodzsó zen mester belépett a Buddha-csarnokba,
és a következő beszédet tartotta a szerzeteseknek:

- A zen gyakorlat lényege a test és tudat felszabadítása. Nincs
szükség tömjéngyújtásra, leborulásra, a Buddha neveinek recitálására,
bűnbánatra, buddhista szentiratok mormolására. Mélyüljetek el ben-
sőtökben, és szabadítsátok fel a testet és tudatot.

Dógen a szavak hallatán elérte a nagy megvilágosodást.

Mióta Dógen belépett a kolostorba, nem aludt egy szemhunyást
sem, éjt nappallá téve az út gyakorlásának szentelte magát. Nyodzsó
mester egy napon a következő szavakkal fordult hozzá:

- Szellemiséged az ősi buddhákra emlékeztet. A pátriárkák útját
te fogod széles körben ismertté tenni. Amikor először megláttalak,
megértettem, mit érezhetett Sákjamuni Buddha, rátalálván Mahákás-
japára.

1225. évben Dógen megkapta a Tant Nyodzsó zen mestertől, aki
a tanátadás után azt mondta:

- Térj vissza szülőhazádba, és ismertesd meg honfitársaiddal
a pátriárkák útját. Élj a hegyek ölében, hogy bölcsességed elmélyítsed.

Dógen zendzsi az elkövetkezendő két évet Kínában vándorolva
töltötte, hogy megismerje a zen öt iskolájának" tanítását. Munkájával
végezvén hazatért Japánba.

 

 

Keizan Jokin (1268-1325) versei
http://zen.gportal.hu/gindex.php?pg=4792614&nid=2439726
Forrás: All a Mistake: Poems of Soto Zen Masters
Translated by Yasuda Joshu roshi and Anzan Hoshin roshi
Magyar fordítás: Hadházi Zsolt

1.

Mozdulatlanul,
magányos csónak megy
holdfényen keresztül.

Körülnézve,
a part nádjai
sohasem
mozdultak.

(Denkoroku 39.)


2.

A mezőt mit szántottam és vetettem
megvették és eladták,
de az mindig új:
nézd a fiatal rügyeket.

Besétálok a Buddha Csarnokba
eke és kapa a kezemben.

(halálvers)