« Zen illusztrációk
« Zen főoldal
« vissza a Terebess Online nyitólapjára

Liang-kaj csan festményei

梁楷 Liang Kai (c. 1140 - c. 1210): 禪宗水墨 Chan Paintings

"The Madman"

Liang K'ai excelled at painting figures, landscapes, Buddhist and Taoist subjects, as well as spirits and deities. He learned painting from Chia Shih-ku (賈師古 Jia Shigu, fl. mid-12th c.), but he outdid his teacher in being able to convey the grace and bearing of figures. In 1210, he was promoted to the rank of Painter-in-Attendance at court and bestowed with the honored Golden Belt. For some reason, however, he refused and left the court with the belt hanging on the academy wall. Taking to a life of drinking and painting, he called himself "Madman Liang (梁瘋子)." It is said that he retired to the Liu-tung monastery to become a Zen monk.

His paintings indicate that he knew and respected many men and was sympathetic to them. Landscapes or still life did not hold him. He sought "the human" directly, through portraiture.

Liang K'ai's painting parallels his two lifestyles. His early work uses Academic conventions although his essential interests are already present. The basis for his fine reputation at the Academy is not clear. In the later work the Zen style emerges. Liang is credited with inventing it and having such strong influence that he created the whole school.

Hiszamacu szerint a zen művészetnek hét ismérve van: szabálytalanság, egyszerűség, szikárság, természetesség, sejtelem, függetlenség, nyugalom.
Hozzá kellene tenni nyolcadiknak a humort is.

Huj-neng bambuszt hasít

The Sixth Patriarch (Hui Neng) Chopping the Bamboo
Hanging Scroll, ink on paper, 72.7 x 31.5 cm
Tokyo National Museum
Important Cultural Property

Liang Kai's figure painting inherits from the style of fine ink lines by Li Gonglin (李公麟, 1049–1106), a literary artist in the end of the Northern Song dynasty, but with considerable variation. Its main characteristic is its simple and hurried expression in ink. The sixth patriarch cutting the bamboo is, together with Li Bai in Stroll, one of the masterpieces of figure paintings by Liang Kai.



Huj-neng összetépi a szútrákat

The Sixth Patriarch (Hui Neng) Tearing up the Sutra
Attributed to Liang Kai
Hanging Scroll, ink on paper, 73 x 31.7 cm.
Collection of Mitsui Takanaru, Mitsui Memorial Museum, Tokyo

A híres párvers A hatodik pátriárka szútrájából
Terebess Gábor fordításában:

A megvilágosulás fája tested,
Tiszta tükör az értelmed.
Törölgesd és dörzsöld folyton,
Nehogy a por rárakódjon.

A megvilágosulásnak nincsen fája,
A tükörnek is üres az állványa.
A buddhatermészet tiszta mindenkor,
Vajon hová rakódjon a por?


潑墨仙人圖 Pomo xianren tu
Részeg halhatalan
Immortal in Splashed Ink
Album leaf, ink on paper, 48.7 x 27.7 cm
National Palace Museum, Taipei

When he was at court, his paintings were admired for their refined brushwork. This album leaf, however, is said to be a masterpiece from his period of drinking and spontaneous painting. The immortal shown here also appears to be somewhat inebriated. As a being of elevated status, his proportions also differ from those of ordinary mortals. The protruding forehead and rounded belly are accented by a few shods of hair and surrounded by unkempt robes that hang loosely down. No lines were used for these parts of the painting as only a few short slanted strokes were employed to define some of the details. Brushwork, however, defines the belt.

The painting was first sketchily rendered in light washes of ink, and then darker ink was applied before the washes had dried in order to convey the weight of the immortal's body. The remaining elements, such as the humorous facial features, were dotted to give the final touch to the immortal's mysterious qualities. Despite the brevity of the work, nothing seems to be missing. This type of brushwork, in which the number of brushstrokes is reduced, is often referred to as "abbreviated brush" and used in Buddhist and Taoist figure painting to convey the untrammeled and supernatural qualities of the supernatural beings. It is said that when Liang K'ai sobered up, he looked upon this painting with a sense of pride.

This is the second leaf from the album "Ming-hua lin-lang."


Han-san és Si-tö
The Chinese Monks Hanshan and Shide

attributed to Liang Kai
81.2 × 33.1 cm
MOA Museum of Art, Atami in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan



Pu-taj arhat
Budai Luohan
31.3 x 24.5 cm
The Shanghai Museum of Art


Pu-taj batyuval a hátán táncra perdül
Pu-tai Carrying a Sac
Murayama Collection

„Fenghua Hszienben, Mingcsouban élt Pu-taj, akit Rongyos Zsák mesternek hívtak, mert olyanra hízott, mint egy jól kitömött batyu. A homloka szűk volt, a pocakja kövér, a beszéde szokatlan. Ott hevert le mindig, ahol rájött az alhatnék. Gyakran szundikált a hóban, csak úgy ültében, felhúzott térdekkel, de nem esett baja. A vállán átvetett boton lógott a batyuja, mindenét abban hordta magával. A vásártéren válogatás nélkül összekoldult bármit, amit csak meglátott, hogy megegye vagy eladja. Jövendőmondásban sosem tévedett. Eső előtt vízbe áztatott szalmabocskort viselt, száraz időben magaslábú sársarut. A környékbeli emberek figyelték a jövését-menését, és ebből tudták, milyen idő várható. 917-ben halt meg összefont lábakkal a Jüe-lin templom keleti tornácán ülve. Ám halála után is gyakran látták kószálni batyuval a hátán, és a szerzetesek versengtek egymással, melyikük tudja élethűbben megfesteni Pu-taj alakját.”

(Terebess Gábor fordítása)


Pu-taj kakasviadalt néz

Fighting Cocks
Hanging scroll, painted in ink on paper, 78.0 x 32.4 cm
松永記念館 Matsunaga Memorial Hall (Matsunaga Kinenkan)
No. 943, Itabashi, Odawara-shi, Kanagawa-ken

Matsunaga Yasuzaemon (1875-1971) was one of the great industrialists and art collectors of the 20th century. He made his fortune in power companies and retired from that world at the age of sixty and took the Tea name Jian (part of a saying from the Analects of Confucius, basically meaning "follow your ear after sixty"). In 1946 he built a Tea house called Roukyosou (Old Zelkova House) in Odawara, Kanagawa Prefecture, to display his immense collection. Of course, not all at once, but depending on the season and guests. Matsunaga's collection has been displayed at the Tokyo National Museum. Roukyosou was purchased by the City of Odawara and is now part of the Matsunaga Jian Memorial Museum.

Árva csészémből ezer család rizsét eszem,
Ezer mérföldön át magamban kószálok.
Botorok szavát készpénznek nem veszem,
Az igazságra fehér felhők közt találok.

(Pu-taj verse Terebess Gábor fordításában)


Li Taj-po szaval
Li Po Chanting a Poem / Li Bai in Stroll
Hanging scroll, ink on paper, 81.1 x 30.5 cm
Tokyo National Museum

This picture shows the genius poet Li Bai (李白, 701-762) in all his splendor using simple strokes of ink. The owner's seal applied to the painting means "seal of great ancient official" in Paspa script and is said to be the seal of Anigo who served the Yuan dynasty. From a copy owned by the Kanô clan, it is known to have formed a pair with a picture by Dongfang Shuo (東方朔, ca.161-93 BC) in the Edo period (1603-1868). The fact that it used to be owned by Matsudaira Fumai, shows its noble origins.

Minden madár a széllel ellebeg,
s velük repülnek mind a fellegek.
De én s a jó öreg csingtingi hegypást
még ernyedetlen kedvvel nézzük egymást.

(Franyó Zoltán fordítása)


Sákjamuni lejön a hegyről
Chushan shijia tu (1204 CE)
Sakyamuni Returning from the Mountains / Sakyamuni Descending the Mountain after Asceticism
Hanging Scroll, ink and color on silk, 117.6 x 52.0 cm
Tokyo National Museum

Liang Kai was also good at detailed and solemn figure painting with colors. This picture depicts an image of Sakyamuni who failed to attain wisdom, in spite of a long period of ascetic practices, descending from his abode on the mountain. Its precise and realistic expression of the figure is extremely superb. Its seal, "Liang Kai, painted before his excellency," indicates that it was painted in the Imperial Palace, and it is a masterpiece of Liang Kai's color figure painting.


Gentleman of the Eastern Fence Dongli Gaoshi
71.5 x 36.7 cm
National Palace Museum, Taipei


Havas táj
Landscape in snow, two men on horseback approaching a pass
110.3 × 49.7 cm
Tokyo National Museum


Vang Hszi-cse legyezőt „dedikál"
Wang Xizhi Calligraphing a Fan
Album leaf, ink on paper, 31.3 x 58.9 cm
National Palace Museum, Taipei 

Liang K'ai served as a Painter-in-Attendance in the Chia-t'ai era (1201-1204) at the court of Emperor Ning-tsung. Liang K'ai specialized in figure painting. Due to his reduction of the brushwork for a spirited effect, his style has been described as "abbreviated brushwork".

The subject of this work is an anecdote about China's Sage Calligrapher Wang Hsi-chih (321-379). He is shown helping an old lady sell her fan by inscribing it with his famous calligraphy. Behind is an attendant holding an inkstone. The expressions of the figures are lively and the drapery is done with fluid brushwork. Although not necessarily a work by Liang K'ai, the artist here was still able to capture the essence of the abbreviated "sketching ideas" style of brushwork.


Zeyan xingyin tu 澤畔行吟圖
Láp partján barangoló költő
Poet Strolling by a Marshy Bank
Fan mounted as an album leaf; ink on silk
22.9 x 24.3 cm
Signed: "Liang Kai"
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988, The Metropolitan Museum of Art


W. 24.9 cm
This work depicts rocks and water with abbreviated brush strokes and the effect of the beautiful gradation of ink on the bottom left-hand is remarkable. Two herons are seen on either side of reeds depicted with sharp horizontal strokes. One bird is resting by the water and the other is flying full alert. This picture is included in “Tōhaku gasetsu”, a collection of Hasegawa Tōhaku's view on art and it appears again in the record of the tea ceremony held on September 23rd, 1561 chronicled by Sōtatsu.
MOA Museum of Art, Atami in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan


26.4cm × 24.2cm
Beijing Palace Museum


Három öreg írástudó

Three old scholars under a pine tree. Ink on silk, album leaf, signed. Hui-hua Kuan
26 × 25.2 cm
Beijing Palace Museum


Két madár és őszi fűz
Autumn Willow and Double Crows
Ink and color on silk
24.7 × 25.7 cm
Palace Museum of Beijing

On a rounded fine silk, the thin elastic twig of a weathered willow painted with charred ink slants the picture into two parts. The autumn wink blows off the delicate willow twigs to the right, separating a couple of cold crows, screaming and flying. Thin cloud in light ink is alternately indistinct or visible; the picture is structured like a Yin and Yang fish, a breakaway from convention. Only a free-spirited painter like Liang Kai could stand out from academy painters, who were obsessed with rigor and refinement. And only Liang Kai was capable of such outrageous structure, and such simple yet powerful works.



Vízimadarak és nádas
Waterfowl and Reeds
Attributed to Liang Kai
hanging scroll, ink on silk, Overall - h:23.00 w:22.90 cm
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund 1984.4


亲 蚕 图 卷 克利夫 兰 美 术馆 藏
Selyemhernyó-tenyésztés és selyemszövés
Sericulture (The Process of Making Silk)
attributed to Liang Kai
handscroll, ink and color on silk,
Third Section - h:27.30 w:93.50 cm
Second Section - h:27.50 w:92.20 cm
First Section - h:26.50 w:92.20 cm
The Cleveland Museum of Art, John L. Severance Collection 1977.5


Nyolc jeles szerzetes
Eight Eminent Monks

高清大图【梁楷-八高僧图卷详解】上海博物馆藏--南宋 Bagaoseng gushi tu
The Shanghai Museum of Art

(1) Seng Guangshen xiang Damo qing jiao de gu shi--
(2) Wu zu Hongren da shi you shi yu jian "Zhi zhe" de gu shi--
(3) Bai Juyi dao Qiantang jin jian Wuke Daolin chan shi de gu shi--
(4) Xiangqing Zhixian chan shi yin sao di er jue wu de gu shi--
(5) Li Yuan he Yuanze fa shi zai chuan shang yu jian yi nü zi ji shui de gu shi--
(6) Guanxi Xian chan shi zai lu shang yu jian yi tong zi ji shui de gu shi--
(7) Louzi he shang zai jiu lou qian wen ge sheng hou gui bai de gu shi--
(8) Xuansha Bei chan shi diao yu de gu shi.

图一《达摩面壁 · 神光参 问》 绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 64.1 cm

图二《弘忍童身 · 道逢杖叟》 绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 66.4 cm

图三《白居易拱谒 · 鸟窠指说》 绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 64.7 cm; Section 3: Niaoke (“Bird's Nest”) and Bai Zhuyi

图四《智闲拥帚 · 回睨竹林》 绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 64.7 cm

图五《李源圆泽系舟 · 女子行汲》   绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 67.1 cm

图六《灌溪索饮 · 童子方汲》   绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 61.9 cm

图七《酒楼一角 · 楼子参拜》   绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 57.9 cm

图八《孤蓬芦岸 · 僧倚 钓车》   绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 66.2 cm




Han-san és Si-tö (részlet)
Detail of Hanshan and Shide attributed to Liang Kai
Masaki Art Institute, Osaka


Részeg szerzetes
An Old Drunkard
Count Matsudaira Collection



List of the paintings attributed to the painter Liang K'ai

Of 27 paintings listed for Liang K'ai, one is a horizontal scroll, two are fan-shaped and the rest are vertical hanging scrolls. Only two have inscriptions that can be seen in the reproductions, which have been cropped to fit our book sizes. The cropping makes it hard, however, to judge the original size. The right sense of placement or whole composition is lost, besides the seals and the inscriptions.

Each entry including the name of the painting first. The owner, miscellaneous detail, best source of reproduction, and Osvald Siren's authenticity grades follow. Siren's grading is: A, A?, B, B?, C, C?, in descending order of possible authenticity. The books available for reproductions in this paper are fully listed (numbers 9 {Chung-kuo ming-hua chi}, 43 {Time}, 60, 61 {Siren}, and 75 {Waley}), with the other possible sources, in the Bibliography. To that I might here add that No. 60 occupies itself with numbers, No. 61 with plates. {Note: for a few listings, the online version adds a category: Internet.}

Sakyamuni leaving his mountain retreat. Count Sakai. Signed. Siren #325. A. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo, Sakyamuni descending the mountain after asceticism. Dark with faint color. http://www.tnm.jp/scripts/col/MOD1.en.idc?X=TA617

Three old trees by a slope in snow. Institute of Art Research, Tokyo. Ink and slight color on paper. Siren #333/ A?

Landscape in snow, two men on horseback approaching a pass. National Museum, Tokyo. Signed. Siren #332. A

Winter birds. M. Chas. Vignier, Paris. Not on Siren list. Waley.

A pair of herons alighting on rocks. Hakone Museum. Signed fan-painting. Siren plate 75. B

Winter landscape with a dry tree and birds. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass. Fan-shaped, signed. B?

Wild geese and some reeds on the shore. Prince Yoshihisa Toku-gawa ("Hereditary Shogun of Japan"). Album leaf, signed. Toso Gemmin Meiga Taikan {73}, p. 82. B

Top of a bare willow-tree, two birds in flight. Ink and slight color on silk. Signed, Album leaf. Hui-hua Kuan. B

Sixteen arhats or lo-han. M. Abe. Long handscroll, signed and sealed. Colophons by Wang Wen-chin, p. 89. Possibly a Ming picture. B?

Wang Hsi-chih writing on a fan. Manchu household Collection, Peiping. Several colophons of the Yuan period, one dated 1323. Poem by Chien-lung. Siren #327. A. Internet: National Palace Museum (China). http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/ecol0401/sel-02.htm

Hui-neng chopping bamboo. National Museum, Tokyo. On paper. Siren #328. Internet: The sixth patriarch cutting bamboo. A. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo. http://www.tnm.jp/scripts/col/MOD1.en.idc?X=TA143

Hui-neng tearing up a sutra. Count Matsudaira. Early Japanese copy after Liang Kai. Siren #329.

Pu-tai carrying a sack. Murayama Collection. Signed. Kokka, No. 152. A?

Li T'ai-po. National Museum, Tokyo. Ink on paper, 79 cm. by 30 cm. Signed. Siren #330. Internet: National Museum of Tokyo. Li Bo in stroll, http://www.tnm.jp/scripts/col/MOD1.en.idc?X=TA164

An old Immortal in a loose open gown. Signed. Inscription by Chien-lung. Imperial Collection (formerly in Peking), Formosa. Time Magazine, May 6, 1957. B? Internet: Immortal in Splashed Ink. Album leaf, ink on paper, 48.7 x 27.7 cm. National Palace Museum (China). http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/collections/p022.htm

Two hermits. Asano. Kokka, No. 402. B

Monk eating a pig's head; Monk holding a shrimp. Masuda. Kokka No. 114. C http://www.coldbacon.com/kensu.html

Han-shan and Shih-te. Hakone Museum. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, plate 65; Matsudaira. Signed. Kokka, No. 40. B?

An old drunkard. Count Matsudaira. Album leaf, signed. Kokka No. 145. B?

A man standing between two old pines looking at a waterfall. Attributed by Wang Tsuan, Yuan period. C

A man sleeping under a pine tree. P'ang Yuan-chi Collection, Ink on silk, album leaf. Hui-hua Kuan. A?

Three old scholars under a pine tree. Ink on silk, album leaf, signed. Hui-hua Kuan. B?

A fisherman with his nets returning home in snow. M. Hayasaki. Signed fan-painting. B

A man reading and a grazing buffalo by a tree. Formerly possession of the Marquis Kuroda. Handscroll, signed. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, plate 72; 9. C

A man seated on a projecting cliff under a pine tree. M. Magoshi Collection, Signed. Toyo Bijutsu Taikan IX, Plate 69. B

Seated arhat. Nezu. London Exhibition Catalogue 972. Attributed. C

Figures. Owned by ? Album leaf. Pan Yuan-chi. Catalogue No. III. Attributed.

梁楷 (传) 白鹭立轴