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Andy Ferguson (1951-)

Andy Ferguson graduated Phi Beta Kappa in Chinese studies from the University of Oregon in 1973. The same year he moved to Kyoto, and subsequently to Taipei, where he studied Japanese and Chinese respectively. He first entered and traveled in mainland China in 1978, before the economic reforms, and subsequently lived in Singapore and Hong Kong where he worked as the Manager for East Asia for a USA company. At that time he began locating and studying a wide variety of Chinese historic cultural sites, especially temples related to the Chinese Chan tradition. He is the author of “Zen's Chinese Heritage: The Masters and their Teachings,” a book in which he translated the teachings of more than 150 ancient Chinese Zen masters. The book is widely used as a reference book in academic and religious culture circles. He has also produced a two hour video DVD about Chinese history and culture, designed for people who didn't take two semesters of Chinese history in college but want to know about China in depth before they go there. He lectures frequently on Chinese culture to community groups in North America and is one of a few Americans who gives lectures in China to groups on topics of historical interest. More recently Andy organized a company called “South Mountain China Tours” that offers unique itineraries and perspectives on East Asian Culture. The tours focus on art, history, flower culture, religious history, and other educational and cultural topics. Some of the tours visit and stay at famous Chinese religious monasteries and other places where participants learn about all aspects of Chinese Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism in situ. With his long-time friend Red Pine, Andy has photographed sites for virtually all the early Zen masters of the Chinese Chan tradition, from Bodhidharma down through many generations of teachers. He recently was the first American to attend the annual ceremony honoring Bodhidharma at his burial temple, Empty Form, in North China.
A member of the San Francisco Zen Center, Andrew Ferguson is a writer and translator who lives in Petaluma, California.



Zen's Chinese Heritage: The Masters and Their Teachings
Wisdom Publications, 2000; Expanded edition, Wisdom Publications, Sommerville, MA, 2011, 551 p.

Foreword to the New Edition

FOR EVERYONE interested and intrigued, whether from the standpoint of scholarly research or experiential practice, by the early history of the quixotic yet inspirational teachings of Chan Buddhism in China extending from the end of the fifth through the thirteenth centuries that set the stage for the later development of Zen in Japan, it is gratifying to have in print this revised edition of Zen's Chinese Heritage, impeccably translated by Andy Ferguson. As a perennial seeker of knowledge who has traveled extensively to ancient temples and sacred mountains as well as to modern universities and institutions of learning throughout China, and who has poured over the classical texts of the tradition for many years, Ferguson is ideally suited to the project of putting forth in English some of the most important—and, unfortunately, mostly neglected—materials about the formation and legacy of the Chan school. And this book is an ideal introduction to the topic and a volume that will be read and reread for many years. This new edition has significantly enhanced sections on Dayi Daoxuan, Huineng, and Baizhang Huaihai.

The Chan sayings translated in this volume, including dialogues, anecdotes, parables, epigrams, and gongan (Japanese: kōan) are primarily taken from the crucial collection called Wudeng Huiyuan* (Compendium of Five Lamps). This collection, which dates from the mid-1200s, is a distillation by the monk Puji** located at the major Lingyin Monastery in the Southern Song capital of Hangzhou of five previously composed “transmission of the lamp” records. These “lamp records” (based on the model of the Biographies of Eminent Monks, which had an edition issued in 988) began to be compiled at the beginning of the eleventh century, and gathered together the main sayings associated with particular teachers by following a generation-by-generation sequence that accommodates the multiple branches (the “five houses and seven streams”) of the Chan lineage. Because some of the stories contained in the earlier lamp records (particularly in the initial masterpiece of the genre, The Record of the Transmission of the Lamp of the Jingde Era) were sometimes left out of the Wudeng Huiyuan, Ferguson knowledgeably and appropriately supplements his translations in this volume with materials from these earlier texts.

* 五燈會元 Wudeng huiyuan
** 大川普濟 Dachuan Puji (1179-1253)

One of the great benefits of this book is the way that Ferguson organizes the twenty-five generations of Chan masters into three main periods. The first is the Legendary Period (480–755), which covers the time from founding patriarch Bodhidharma through the direct disciples of sixth patriarch Huineng in the seventh generation. During this phase, the actual sense of historiography is rather sketchy and stories mixing myth and magic are blended with more philosophical fare. The second period is the Classical Period (755–950), that is, from the middle of the Tang dynasty until around the dawn of the Song dynasty, when the Southern school known for its blasphemous rhetoric and iconoclastic antics became prominent along with several other collateral lineages. Finally, there is the Literary Period (950–1260), when the records of the Chan masters' sayings, which were initially probably oral teachings sometimes transcribed into notes by dedicated disciples, were composed and expanded into the recorded sayings (yulu) and paradigmatic cases or gongan.

The Wudeng Huiyuan, the text from which Zen's Chinese Heritage is primarily drawn, is in many ways the pinnacle of the tradition of accumulating the teachings of diverse masters set in various genres of transmission of the lamp records, recorded sayings of individual teachers, and gongan collections. Many of the sayings here are familiar to readers from other sources, sometimes in slightly different versions, which is itself an issue that is enjoyable and challenging to sort out. The Compendium of Five Lamps is an incredibly rich resource that is very deserving of this new edition.

Steven Heine
Florida International University
Miami, Florida


Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xiii

Foreword to the New Edition by Steven Heine xv

Foreword by Tenshin Reb Anderson xvii

Preface xxi

Technical Note xxv

Introduction 1

Part 1
The Legendary Period 480-755

The First Four Generations

Bodhidharma 11

Dazu Huike 21

Jianzhi Sengcan 25

Dayi Daoxin 27

Fifth Generation

Daman Hongren 35

Niutou Farong 38

Sixth Generation

Dajian Huineng, "Caoxi" 43

Yuquan Shenxiu, "Datong" 48

Seventh Generation

Nanyue Huairang 53

Qingyuan Xingsi 56

Nanyang Huizhong 58

Yongjia Xuanjue 64

Heze Shenhui 66

Part 2
The Classical Period 755-950

Eighth Generation

Mazu Daoyi, "Daji" 73

Shitou Xiqian 79

Danyuan Yingzhen 83

Ninth Generation

Baizhang Huaihai 85

Xitang Zhizang 92

Daju Huihai 94

Zhangjing Huaiyun 98

Yanguan Qi'an 100

Damei Fachang 102

Guizong Zhichang 105

Layman Pang, "Pangyun" 108

Mayu Baoche 111

Panshan Baoji 113

Luzu Baoyun 116

Zhongyi Hongen 117

Wujiu Youxuan 118

Nanquan Puyuan, "Old Teacher Wang" 119

Yaoshan Weiyan 122

Danxia Tianran 126

Tianhuang Daowu 130

Tenth Generation

Huangbo Xiyun 133

Wufeng Changguan 139

Guishan Da'an, "Changqing Da'an," "Lazy An" 140

Baizhang Niepan, "Fazheng" 142

Guishan Lingyou 143

Guannan Daochang 148

Hangzhou Tianlong 149

Changsha Jingcen, "Tiger Cen" 149

Zhaozhou Congshen 153

Yunyan Tansheng 160

Chuanzi Decheng 163

Daowu Yuanzhi, "Zongzhi" 166

Cuiwei Wuxue 168

Longtan Chongxin 170

Eleventh Generation

Linji Yixuan, "Huizhao" 173

Muzhou Daoming, "Chen Zunsu" 177

Dasui Fazhen, "Shenzhao" 180

Lingyun Zhiqin 183

Jingzhao Mihu, "Mi the Seventh" 184

Yangshan Huiji 185

Xiangyan Zhixian 191

Liu Tiemo, "Iron Grinder Liu" 194

Jinhua Juzhi 195

Moshan Liaoran 197

Yanyang Shanzhao 199

Dongshan Liangjie 200

Jiashan Shanhui 207

Shishuang Qingzhu 209

Touzi Datong 213

Deshan Xuanjian 216

Twelfth Generation

Xinghua Cunjiang 223

Baoshou Yanzhao 225

Sansheng Huiran 227

Tongfeng Anzhu 229

Xita Guangmu 230

Nanta Guangyong 231

Yunju Daoying 232

Qinshan Wensui 236

Longya Judun, "Zhengkong" 239

Yuezhou Qianfeng 241

Caoshan Benji 242

Qinglin Shiqian 246

Shushan Kuangren 249

Luopu Yuanan 254

Jiufeng Daoqian 258

Daguang Juhui 260

Xuefeng Yicun 261

Yantou Quanhuo 266

Guifeng Zongmi 269

Thirteenth Generation

Nanyuan Huiyong, "Baoying" 273

Xiyuan Siming 275

Zifu Rubao 276

Bajiao Huiqing 278

Tongan Daopi 280

Huguo Shoucheng, "Jingguo" 282

Yunmen Wenyan 283

Cuiyan Lingcan, "Yongming" 288

Jingqing Daofu, "Xun De" 290

Taiyuan Fu 294

Xuansha Shibei 297

Baofu Congzhan 300

Changqing Huileng 304

Luoshan Daoxian 307

Ruiyan Shiyan 309

Fourteenth Generation

Fengxue Yanzhao 313

Xingyang Qingrang 316

Tongan Guanzhi 316

Xianglin Chengyuan 317

Fengxian Daoshen 320

Baling Haojian 322

Deshan Yuanming, "Yuanmi" 324

Dongshan Shouchu 326

Luohan Guichen, "Dizang" 327

Wang Yanbin 331

Mingzhao Deqian 332

Fifteenth Generation

Shoushan Xingnian 335

Liangshan Yuanguan 338

Zhimen Guangzuo 339

Lianhua Fengxian, "Hermit of Lotus Flower Peak" 340

Wenshu Yingzhen 341

Fayan Wenyi, "Qingliang" 342

Qingxi Hongjin, "Jinshan" 347

Longji Shaoxiu, "Xiushan" 348

Part 3
The Literary Period 950-1260

Sixteenth Generation

Fenyang Shanzhao, "Wude" 353

Shexian Guixing 359

Dayang Jingxuan, "Jingyan" 361

Jiufeng Qin 363

Xuedou Chongxian, "Mingjue" 364

Bao'en Xuanze 367

Guizong Cezhen 369

Baoci Xingyan 371

Chongshou Qizhou 372

Tiantai Deshao 373

Tianping Congyi 376

Seventeenth Generation

Shishuang Chuyuan, "Zhiming" 379

Dayu Shouzhi, "Cuiyan" 382

Langye Huijue, "Kaihua Guangzhao" 385

Fushan Fayuan, "Yuanjian" 386

Touzi Yiqing 389

Xingyang Qingpou 392

Tianyi Yihuai 394

Chengtian Chuanzong 396

Yongming Yanshou 397

Eighteenth Generation

Huanglong Huinan 401

Yangqi Fanghui 407

Cuiyan Kezhen 411

Changshui Zixuan 414

Furong Daokai 415

Nineteenth Generation

Yunan Kewen, "Zhenjing,", "Baofeng" 421

Huitang Zuxin, "Huanglong" 424

Baiyun Shouduan 428

Baoning Renyong 431

Dagui Muche, "Guishan Zhe" 434

Danxia Zichun 436

Baofeng Weizhao 438

Twentieth Generation

Juefan Huihong, "Dehong," "Qingliang" 441

Doushuai Congyue 444

Sixin Wuxin, "Huanglong Wuxin" 446

Wuzu Fayan, "Qingyuan" 448

Zhenxie Qingliao, "Changlu" 451

Hongzhi Zhengjue, "Tiantong" 454

Twenty-first Generation

Yuanwu Keqin, "Foguo," "Shaojue" 459

Taiping Huiqin, "Fojian" 465

Foyan Qingyuan, "Longmen" 468

Kaifu Daoning 473

Tiantong Zongjue 475

Twenty-second Generation

Dahui Zonggao, "Fori" 477

Huguo Jingyuan 483

Zhu'an Shigui 485

Yue'an Shanguo, "Dagui" 487

Xuedou Zhijian, "Zu'an" 489

Twenty-third Generation

Dahong Zuzheng, "Lao Na" 491

Tiantong Rujing 492

Twenty-fourth Generation

Yuelin Shiguan 495

Twenty-fifth Generation

Wumen Huikai, "Huanglong," "Foyan" 497

Appendix: Faith in Mind (attributed to the Third Ancestor, Jianzhi Sengcan) 499

Select Bibliography 505

Texts in English 505

Modern Texts in Chinese 506

Promodern Texts in Chinese 507

Records of Individual Teachers 508

Romanization Tables

Pinyin-Wade-Giles-Romaji 509

Wade-Giles-Pinyin-Romaji 515

Romaji-Pinyin-Wade-Giles 521

Notes 527

Index 539

About the Author 551

Zen's Chinese Heritage: Romanization Table
The following tables list names of the Zen ancestors in alphabetical order in each of three common romanization systems. Names are presented in pinyin, Wade-Giles, and Japanese romaji.

PINYIN (Chinese) WADE-GILES (Chinese) ROMAJI (Japanese)

Baiyun Shouduan Pai-yün Shou-tuan Hakuun Shutan

Baizhang Huaihai Pai-chang Huai-hai Hyakujō Ekai

Baizhang Niepan Pai-chang Nieh-p'an Hyakujō Nehan

Bajiao Huiqing Pa-chiao Hui-ch'ing Bashō Esei

Baling Haojian Pa-ling Hao-chien Haryō Kōkan

Baoci Xingyan Pao-ts'u Hsing-yen Hōji Gyōgon

Bao'en Xuanze Pao-ên Hsüan-tsê Hōon Gensoku

Baofeng Weizhao Pao-fêng Wei-chao Hōhō Ishō

Baofu Congzhan Pao-fu Ts'ung-chan Hofuku Jūten

Baoning Renyong Pao-ning Jên-yung Honei Ninyū

Baoshou Yanzhao Pao-shou Yen-chao Hōju Enshō

Caoshan Benji Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi Sōzan Honjaku

Caoxi (see Dajian Huineng)

Changqing Da'an (see Guishan Da'an)

Changqing Huileng Ch'ang-ch'ing Hui-lêng Chōkei Eryō

Changsha Jingcen Ch'ang-sha Ching-ts'ên Chōsha Keishin

Changshui Zixuan Ch'ang-shui Tzu-hsuan Chōsui Shisen

Chanti Weizhao (see Baofeng Weizhao)

Chengtian Chuanzong Ch'eng-t'ien Ch'uan-tsung Jōten Denshū

Chongshou Qichou Ch'ung-shou Ch'i-ch'ou Sūju Keichū

Chuanzi Decheng Ch'uan-tzü Tê-ch'êng Sensu Tokujō

Cizhou Faru Ts'ü-chou Fa-ju Jishū Hōnyo

Cuiwei Wuxue Ts'ui-wei Wu-hsüeh Suibi Mugaku

Cuiyan Kezhen Ts'ui-yen K'o-chên Suigan Kashin

Cuiyan Lingcan Ts'ui-yen Ling-ts'an Suigan Reisan

Cuiyan Shouzhi (see Dayu Shouzhi)

Daguang Juhui Ta-kuang Chü-hui Daikō Kokai

Dagui Muche Ta-kuei Mu-chê Daii Botetsu

Dahong Zuzheng Ta-hung Tsu-Chêng Daikō Soshō

Dahui Zonggao Ta-hui Tsung-kao Daie Sōkō

Dajian Huineng Ta-chien Hui-nêng Daikan Enō

Dalong Ta-lung Dairyō

Daman Hongren Ta-man Hung-jên Daiman Kōnin

Damei Fachang Ta-mei Fa-ch'ang Daibai Hōjō

Danxia Tianran Tan-hsia T'ien-jan Tanka Tenen

Danxia Zichun Tan-hsia Tzu-ch'un Tanka Shijun

Danyuan Yingzhen Tan-yüan Ying-chên Tangen Ôshin

Daowu Yuanzhi Tao-wu Yüan-chih Dōgo Enchi

Daoxin (see Dayi Daoxin)

Dasui Fazhen Ta-sui Fa-chên Daizui Hōshin

Datong (see Yuquan Shenxiu)

Dayang Jingxuan Ta-yang Ching-hsüan Taiyō Kyōgen

Dayang Yan (see Dayang Jingxuan)

Dayi Daoxin Ta-i Tao-hsin Daii Dōshin

Dayu (see Gaoan Dayu)

Dayu Shouzhi Ta-yü Shou-chih Daigu Shushi

Dazu Huike Ta-tsu Hui-k'o Taiso Eka

Deshan Xuanjian Tê-shan Hsüan-chien Tokusan Senkan

Deshan Yuanmi Tê-shan Yüan-mi Tokusan Emmitsu

Dingzhou Shizang Ting-chou Shih-tsang Jōshū Sekisō

Dizang (see Luohan Guichen)

Dongshan Liangjie Tung-shan Liang-chieh Tōzan Ryōkai

Dongshan Shouchu Tung-shan Shou-ch'u Tōsan Shusho

Doushuai Congyue Tou-shuai Ts'ung-yüeh Tosotsu Jūetsu

Farong (see Niutou Farong)

Fayan Wenyi Fa-yen Wên-i Hōgen Bun'eki

Fengxian Daochen Fêng-hsien Tao-ch'ên Hōsen Dōshin

Fengxue Yanzhao Fêng-hsüeh Yen-chao Fūketsu Enshō

Fenyang Shanzhao Fên-yang Shan-chao Fun'yō Zenshō

Foguo (see Yuanwu Keqin)

Fojian (see Taiping Huiqin)

Fori (see Dahui Zonggao)

Foyan Qingyuan Fo-yen Ch'ing-yüan Butsugen Seion

Furong Daokai Fu-jung Tao-k'ai Fuyō Dōkai

Fushan Fayuan Fu-shan Fa-yüan Fuzan Hōen

Gaoan Dayu Kao-an Ta-yü Kōan Daigu

Guannan Daochang Kuan-nan Tao-ch'ang Kannan Dōjō

Guifeng Zongmi Kuei-fêng Tsung-mi Keihō Shūmitsu

Guishan Da'an Kuei-shan Ta-an Isan Daian

Guishan Lingyou Kuei-shan Ling-yu Isan Reiyū

Guizong Cezhen Kuei-tsung Ts'ê-Chên Kisō Sakushin

Guizong Zhichang Kuei-tsung Chih-ch'ang Kisu Chijō

Hai Brother Hai (see Baizhang Huaihai)

Hangzhou Tianlong Hang-chou T'ien-lung Kōshū Tenryū

Hermit of Tongfeng (see Tongfeng Anzhu)

Heze Shenhui Ho-tsê Shên-hui Kataku Jinne

Hongren (see Daman Hongren)

Hongzhi Zhengjue Hung-chih Chêng-chüeh Wanshi Shōgaku

Huangbo Xiyun Huang-po Hsi-yün Ôbaku Kiun

Huanglong Huinan Huang-lung Hui-nan Ôryū Enan

Huanglong Zuxin (see Huitang Zuxin)

Huangmei (see Daman Hongren)

Huguo Jingyuan Hu-kuo Ching-yüan Gokoku Keigen

Huguo Shoucheng Hu-kuo Shou-chêng Gokoku Shuchō

Huichao (see Guizong Cezhen)

Huike (see Dazu Huike)

Huineng (see Dajian Huineng)

Huitang Zuxin Hui-t'ang Tsu-hsin Kaidō Soshin

Huizhao (see Linji Yixuan)

Iron Grinder Liu (see Liu Tiemo)

Jianfeng (see Yuezhou Qianfeng)

Jianzhi Sengcan Chien-Chih Sêng-ts'an Kanchi Sōsan

Jiashan Shanhui Chia-shan Shan-hui Kassan Zenne

Jingqing Daofu Ching-ch'ing Tao-fu Kyōsei Dōfu

Jingzhao Mihu Ching-chao Mi-hu Keichō Beiyu

Jingzhong Shenhui Ching-Chung Shên-hui Jōshu Jinne

Jingzhong Wuxiang Ching-Chung Wu-Hsiang Jōshu Musō

Jinhua Juzhi Chin-hua Chü-chih Gutei Chikan

Jinshan (see Qingxi Hongjin)

Jiufeng Daoqian Chiu-fêng Tao-ch'ien Kyūhō Dōken

Jiufeng Qin Chiu-fêng Ch'in Kyūhō Gon

Juefan Huihong Chüeh-fan Hui-hung Kakuhan Ekō

Juzhi “One Finger Zen” (see Jinhua Juzhi)

Kaifu Daoning K'ai-fu Tao-ning Kaifuku Dōnei

Langye Huijue Lang-yeh Hui-chüeh Rōya Ekaku

Lazy An (see Guishan Da'an)

Liangshan Yuanguan Liang-shan Yüan-kuan Ryōzan Enkan

Lianhua Fengxiang Lien-hua Fêng-hsiang Renge Hōshō

Lingyun Zhiqin Ling-yün Chih-ch'in Reiun Shigon

Linji Yixuan Lin-chi I-hsüan Rinzai Gigen

Liu Tiemo Liu T'ieh-mo Ryū Tetsuma

Longji Shaoxiu Lung-chi Shao-hsiu Ryūsai Shōshū

Longtan Chongxin Lung-t'an Ch'ung-hsin Ryūtan Sōshin

Longya Judun Lung-ya Chü-tun Ryūge Kodon

Lotus Flower Peak (the Hermit of, see Lianhua Fengxiang)

Luohan Guichen Lo-han Kuei-ch'ên Rakan Keichin

Luopu Yuanan Lo-p'u Yüan-an Rakuho Gen'an

Luoshan Daoxian Lo-shan Tao-hsien Razan Dōkan

Luzu Baoyun Lu-tsu Pao-yün Roso Hōun

Magu Baoche (see Mayu Baoche)

Mayu Baoche Ma-yu Pao-ch'ê Mayoku Hōtetsu

Mazu Daoyi Ma-tsu Tao-i Baso Dōitsu

Mihu (see Jingzhao Mihu)

Mingan Rongxi Ming-an Jung-hsi Myōan Eisai

Mingzhao Deqian Ming-chao Tê-ch'ien Myōshō Tokken

Moshan Liaoran Mo-shan Liao-jan Massan Ryōnen

Muzhou Daoming Mu-chou Tao-ming Bokushū Dōmyō

Nanpu Shaoming Nan-p'u Shao-ming Nampo Jōmyō

Nanquan Puyuan Nan-ch'üan P'u-yüan Nansen Fugan

Nanta Guangyong Nan-t'a Kuang-yung Nantō Kōyū

Nanyang Huizhong Nan-yang Hui-chung Nan'yō Echū

Nanyuan Huiyong Nan-yüan Hui-yung Nan'in Egyō

Nanyue Huairang Nan-yüeh Huai-jang Nangaku Ejō

National Teacher Zhong (see Nanyang Huizhong)

Nirvana Master (see Baizhang Niepan)

Niutou Farong Niu-t'ou Fa-jung Gozu Hōyū

Overnight Guest (see Yongjia Xuanjue)

Pangyun (Layman Pang) P'ang Yün Hōun

Panshan Baoji P'an-shan Pao-chi Banzan Hōshaku

Puji (see Songshan Puji)

Puti Damo P'u-t'i Ta-mo Bodai Daruma

Qianfeng (see Yuezhou Qianfeng)

Qinglin Shiqian Ch'ing-lin Shih-ch'ien Seirin Shiken

Qingxi Hongjin Ch'ing-hsi Hung-chin Seikei Kōshin

Qingyuan Xingsi Ch'ing-yüan Hsing-ssu Seigen Gyōshi

Qinshan Wensui Ch'in-shan Wên-sui Kinzan Bunsui

Ruiyan Shiyan Jui-yen Shih-yen Zuigan Shigen

Sansheng Huiran San-shêng Hui-jan Sanshō Enen

Sengcan (see Jianzhi Sengcan)

Shengshou Nanyin Shêng-shou Nan-yin Seijū Nan'in

Shenxiu (see Yuquan Shenxiu)

Shexian Guixing Shê-hsien Kuei-hsing Sekken Kisei

Shishuang Chuyuan Shih-shuang Ch'u-yüan Sekisō Soen

Shishuang Qingzhu Shih-shuang Ch'ing-chu Sekisō Keisho

Shitou Xiqian Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien Sekitō Kisen

Shoushan Xingnian Shou-shan Hsing-nien Shuzan Shōnen

Shushan Kuangren Shu-shan K'uang-jên Sozan Kyōnin

Sixin Wuxin Ssü-hsin Wu-hsin Shishin Goshin

Songshan Puji Sung-shan P'u-chi Sūzan Fujaku

Suizhou Daoyuan Sui-chou Tao-yüan Suishū Dōen

Taigu Puyu T'ai-ku P'u-yü (Korean) Taigo Pou

Taiping Huiqin T'ai-p'ing Hui-ch'in Taihei Egon

Taiyuan Fu T'ai-yüan Fu Taigen Fu

Tianhuang Daowu T'ien-huang Tao-wu Tennō Dōgo

Tianping Congyi T'ien-p'ing Ts'ung-i Tempyō Jūi

Tiantai Deshao T'ien-t'ai Tê-shao Tendai Tokushō

Tiantong (see Hongzhi Zhengjue)

Tiantong Rujing T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching Tendō Nyojō

Tiantong Zongjue T'ien-t'ung Tsung-chüeh Tendō Sōkaku

Tianyi Yihuai T'ien-i I-huai Tenne Gikai

Tongan Daopi T'ung-an Tao-p'i Dōan Dōhi

Tongan Guanzhi T'ung-an Kuan-chih Dōan Kanshi

Tongfeng Anzhu T'ungfeng Anchu Tōhō Anju

Touzi Datong T'ou-tzü Ta-t'ung Tōsu Daidō

Touzi Yiqing T'ou-tzü I-ch'ing Tōsu Gisei

Wang Yanbin Wang Yen-pin Ō Enhin

Wenshu Yingzhen Wên-shu Ying-chên Monju Ôshin

Wuben (see Dongshan Liangjie)

Wufeng Changguan Wu-fêng Ch'ang-kuan Gohō Jōkan

Wujiu Youxuan Wu-chiu Yu-hsüan Ukyū Yūgen

Wumen Huikai Wu-mên Hui-k'ai Mumon Ekai

Wuzu Fayan Wu-tsu Fa-yen Goso Hōen

Xianglin Chengyuan Hsiang-lin Ch'êng-yüan Kyōrin Chōon

Xiangyan Zhixian Hsiang-yen Chih-hsien Kyōgen Chikan

Xinghua Cunjiang Hsing-hua Ts'un-chiang Koke Sonshō

Xingyang Qingpou Hsing-yang Ch'ing-p'ou Kōyō Seibō

Xingyang Qingrang Hsing-yang Ch'ing-jang Kōyō Seijō

Xita Guangmu Hsi-t'a Kuang-mu Saitō Kōboku

Xitang Zhizang Hsi-t'ang Chih-tsang Seidō Chizō

Xiushan (see Longji Shaoxiu)

Xiyuan Siming Hsi-yüan Ssü-ming Saiin Shimyō

Xuansha Shibei Hsüan-sha Shih-pei Gensha Shibi

Xuedou Chongxian Hsüeh-tou Ch'ung-hsien Setchō Jūken

Xuedou Zhijian Hsüeh-tou Chih-chien Setchō Chikan

Xuefeng Yicun Hsüeh-fêng I-ts'un Seppō Gison

Yang Wuwei Yang Wu-wei Yō Mui

Yangqi Fanghui Yang-ch'i Fang-hui Yōgi Hōe

Yangshan Huiji Yang-shan Hui-chi Kyōzan Ejaku

Yanguan Qi'an Yen-kuan Ch'i-an Enkan Seian

Yantou Quanhuo Yen-t'ou Ch'üan-huo Gantō Zenkatsu

Yanyang Shanxin Yen-yang Shan-hsin Genyō Zenshin

Yaoshan Weiyan Yao-shan Wei-yen Yakusan Igen

Yongjia Xuanjue Yung-chia Hsüan-chüeh Yōka Genkaku

Yongming Yanshou Yung-ming Yen-shou Yōmei Enju

Yongping Daoyuan Yung-p'ing Tao-yüan Eihei Dōgen

Yuanguan (see Liangshan Yuanguan)

Yuanming (see Deshan Yuanmi)

Yuantong Fashen Yüan-t'ung Fa-shên Entsū Hōshū

Yuanwu Keqin Yüan-wu K'ê-ch'in Engo Kokugon

Yue'an Shanguo Yüeh-an Shan-kuo Gettan Zenka

Yuelin Shiguan Yüeh-lin Shih-kuan Gatsurin Shikan

Yuezhou Qianfeng Yuëh-chou Ch'ien-fêng Esshū Kempō

Yunan Kewen Yün-an K'o-wên Un'an Kokubun

Yunju Daoying Yün-chü Tao-ying Ungo Dōyō

Yunmen Wenyan Yün-men Wên-yen Ummon Bun'en

Yunyan Tansheng Yün-yen T'an-shêng Ungan Donjō

Yuquan Shenxiu Yü-Ch'uan Shên-hsiu Gyokusen Jinshū

Zhangjing Huaiyun Chang-ching Huai-yün Shōkei Eki

Zhaozhou Congshen Chao-chou Ts'ung-shên Jōshū Jūshin

Zhenxie Qingliao Chên-hsieh Ch'ing-liao Shinketsu Seiryō

Zhimen Guangzuo Chih-mên Kuang-tso Chimon Kōso

Zhishen (see Zizhou Zhishen)

Zhongyi Hongen Chung-i Hung-ên Chūyū Kōon

Zhu'an Shigui Chu-an Shih-kuei Chikuan Shikei

Zifu Rubao Tsü-fu Ju-pao Shifuku Nyohō

Zizhou Chuji Tsü-chou Ch'u-chi Shishū Shojaku

Zizhou Zhishen Tsü-chou Chih-shên Shishū Chisen

Zu'an (see Xuedou Zhijian)


PDF: Lineage Chart of the Zen Ancestors in China (with hanzi 漢字)

PDF: Zen Ancestor Map (showing the general locations of the most famous Chinese Chan temples in China) (JPG in color)


Tracking Bodhidharma: A Journey to the Heart of Chinese Culture
Counterpoint Press, Berkeley, 2012, 359 p.


Did Bodhidharma Meet Emperor Liang Wu Di?
Copyright 2010 Andrew Ferguson