ZEN MESTEREK ZEN MASTERS
« Zen főoldal
« vissza a Terebess Online nyitólapjára
大日能忍 Dainichi Nōnin (d. 1196?)
大日房能忍 Dainichibō Nōnin
大日能忍 Dainichi Nōnin (d. 1196?), 大日房能忍 Dainichibō Nōnin
The founder of the Daruma school, an early and short-lived school of Japanese zen. Nōnin studied Zen texts on his own early in his monastic career, and had a significant enlightenment experience. Realizing that Zen enlightenment requires authentication by a recognized master, he sent two disciples to China in 1189 to visit the master Te-kuang (1121–1203) with letters and gifts. The latter sanctioned Nōnin's experience and sent back a certificate and robe. Thereafter, Nōnin's fame spread and he gathered many disciples. An early account says that he was killed by a nephew in either 1194 or 1195, but scholars give little credence to this. After his death.his disciples joined Dōgen (1200–53).
仏智覺晏 Butchi Kakuan (d. 1234?)
日本達磨宗 Nihon Daruma-shū
“Japanese school of Bodhidharma”
Darumashū. (達摩宗). In Japanese, the “BODHIDHARMA sect”; one of the earliest Japanese Buddhist ZEN sects, established in the tenth century by DAINICHI NŌNIN; the sect takes its name from the putative founder of the CHAN tradition, Bodhidharma. Little was known about the teachings of the Darumashū until the late-twentieth century apart from criticisms found in the writings of its contemporary rivals, who considered the school to be heretical. Criticisms focused on issues of the authenticity of Nōnin's lineage and antinomian tendencies in Nōnin's teachings. A recently discovered Darumashū treatise, the Jōto shōgakuron (“Treatise on the Attainment of Complete, Perfect Enlightenment”), discusses the prototypical Chan statement “mind is the buddha,” demonstrating that a whole range of benefits, both worldly and religious, would accrue to an adept who simply awakens to that truth. As a critique of the Darumashū by Nōnin's rival MYŌAN EISAI states, however, since the school posits that the mind is already enlightened and the afflictions (KLEŚA) do not exist in reality, its adherents claimed that there were therefore no precepts that had to be kept or practices to be followed, for religious cultivation would only serve to hinder the experience of awakening. The Darumashū also emphasized the importance of the transmission of the patriarchs' relics (J. shari; S. ŚARĪRA) as a mark of legitimacy. Although the Darumashū was influential enough while Nōnin was alive to prompt other sects to call for its suppression, it did not survive its founder's death, and most of Nōnin's leading disciples affiliated themselves with other prominent teachers, such as DŌGEN KIGEN. These Darumashū adherents had a significant influence on early SŌTŌSHŪ doctrine and selfidentity and seem to have constituted the majority of the Sōtōshū tradition into its third generation of successors.
The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism
Bernard Faure: “The Daruma-shū, Dōgen and Sōtō Zen”,
in: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 42, No. 1. (Spring, 1987), pp. 25-55.
From prominence to obscurity: a study of the Darumashū: Japan's first Zen school
by Vincent Breugem
Leiden University dissertation, 2012
From Prominence to Obscurity focuses on the Darumashū (Bodhidharma school), a little known but important agent in the formative history of Zen in Japan. In the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the 達磨宗 Darumashū – established by the monk 大日房能忍 Dainichibō Nōnin (fl. 1189) – was considered representative of the Zen school, one of the budding movements in the Buddhist landscape of medieval Japan. Later the Darumashū was to disappear, marginalized and absorbed by competing claimants to Zen orthodoxy that would affirm themselves. Besides examining scattered references to Nōnin and his lineage, the dissertation considers relics and other objects that were venerated at the now vanished Darumashū temple 三寶寺 Sambōji. In addition, the dissertation provides analyses and annotated translations of three long-neglected doctrinal treatises that emerged from the Darumashū itself, entitled Jōtōshōgakuron (Treatise on attaining supreme awakening), Kenshōjōbutsugi (On seeing the nature and becoming a buddha) and Hōmon taikō (Dharma gate fundamentals). Furthermore, it traces criticisms of the Darumashū in the writings of Eisai (1141-1215), Dōgen (1200-1215) and the Shingon monk Raiyu (1226-1304).
PART FOUR: TRANSLATIONS
Text I. Treatise on attaining supreme awakening (Jōtōshōgakuron) Jōtō Shōgakuron 成等正覺 論
Text II. On seeing the nature and becoming a buddha (Kenshōjōbutsugi) Kenshō Jōbutsuron 見性成仏 論
Text III. Dharma gate fundamentals (Hōmon taikō) Hōmon Taikō 法門大 綱