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楼子和尚 Louzi heshang (n.d.)

Painting by 梁楷 Liang Kai (c. 1140 - c. 1210)
图七《酒楼一角 · 楼子参拜》   绢本设色   尺寸: 26.6 × 57.9 cm
Louzi he shang zai jiu lou qian wen ge sheng hou gui bai de gu shi

7th of the Eight Eminent Monks
高清大图【梁楷-八高僧图卷详解】上海博物馆藏--南宋 Bagaoseng gushi tu
The Shanghai Museum of Art


樓子和尚名善 , 津平江人 , 姓楊氏。初浮浪於肆市 , 一日至承天寺聆法 , 有省 , 即出 家受具。偶至酒樓聞歌,曰: 「 你既無心我便休 !」 樓前拜 云:「 非此樓則不知有此 事。 」

The given name of the monk Tavern Master was Shan. He was a native of Jin pingjiang, and a member of the Yang clan. Early in his life he idled about in markets and towns. One day, hearing the dharma in the Chengtian temple led him to a realisation. He immediately entered the monastery and accepted full ordination. [Once] stumbling upon a tavern he heard someone singing: “As you are so heartless, I give up.” Prostrating himself before the tavern he said: “If it were not for this tavern, then I would not have understood this matter!”


Biography of Master Tavern Monk (Louzi Heshang 樓子和尚)
by Dachaun Puji 大川普濟 (1179 - 1253)
In: Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps (Wudeng Huiyuan 五燈會元) 1252 CE.
WDHY J.6, in: X.1565.80: 138, c8 - 10.


It is not known where he came from, or what his given or family names were. Once, when travelling between towns and markets, he heard a line of song from the upper floor of a tavern he had stopped beneath to fix his socks. The song went: If you are so heartless, I may as well give up. Thereupon, he was suddenly awakened, and was thus known as Tavern Master.

In: Narrative agency in thirteenth-fourteenth century Chan figure painting : a study of hagiography-iconography text-image relationships
by McNeill, Malcolm L. S.
Thesis (Ph.D.), SOAS University of London, 2017. p. 297.

id. pp. 243-247:

The seventh scene's depiction of the narrative of the awakening of Louzi Heshang 樓子和尚 (Master Tavern Monk) also has a hagiographic prototype in the Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps, rather than in earlier texts such as the Jingde Record. However, the prose inscription accompanying the Louzi scene expands upon the Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps prototype, adding specific details of the monk's geographic origins and family and g iven names that were declared unknown in the 1252 record. 474 The text accompanying the Eight Eminent Monks Louzi is therefore possibly an original composition, which has incorporated further details as the Louzi narrative was augmented over time. Alternative ly, it may replicate the text of another iteration of the Louzi narrative from an expanded compendium, even later than the 1252 Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps.

The painted scene depicts the monk prostrating before a tavern. The edge of the drinking den's ground floor wall is just visible at the top right of the composition, next to its banner that blows in the wind toward Louzi by the base of two trees. The monk is venerating the tavern, as he has just overheard a line from a ballad sung by one of t he patrons, which has stimulated a profound religious insight. Two passers by turn to stare at Louzi in confusion. The accompanying prose offers the following narrative:

The given name of the monk Tavern Master was Shan. He was a native of Jinpingjiang, a nd a member of the Yang clan. Early in his life he idled about in markets and towns. One day, hearing the dharma in the Chengtian temple led him to a realisation. He immediately entered the monastery and accepted full ordination. [Once] stumbling upon a ta vern he heard someone singing: “As you are so heartless, I give up.” Prostrating himself before the tavern he said: “If it were not for this tavern, then I would not have understood this matter!”

樓子和尚名善 , 津平江人 , 姓楊氏。初浮浪於肆市 , 一日至承天寺聆 法 , 有省 , 即出家受具。偶至酒樓聞歌,曰: 「 你既無心我便休 ! 」 樓 前拜 云 : 「 非此樓則不知有此事。 」

In Louzi's Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps hagiography, this event is explicitly identified as a stimulus for sudden awakening. Having achieved this transformation through the sonic stimulus of a song from a tavern, he is thus kn own as Tavern Master (Louzi). Listed in the Collated Essentials of the Five Lamps as an ‘unspecified dharma heir' (weixiang fasi 未詳法嗣), alongside the monk Yushanzhu 郁山主 (act. 11 th century), Louzi's awakening is not linked to any pedagogical relationship. 475 Nonetheless, it conforms to the Chan ideal of awakenings occurring through extra-textual stimuli, in unexpected places. In this case, it is the double entendre of the ballad that prompts the awakening. The line “ As you are so heartless, I give up, ” could also translate as, “as you lack defiled thought, I can take my ease.” The Eight Eminent Monks scene directs Louzi's gaze toward the tavern, the source of his awakening. However, the structure is not made visible to the painting's viewer. The accompanying a nd associated texts tell the scroll's audience that the activity in the tavern has stimulated Louzi's awakening. Yet, like the adjacent figures in the composition, the viewer's attention is drawn to Louzi's eccentric actions at the centre of the scene. As he bows toward the tavern that sits just above the picture plane, this eccentric monk's awareness both literally and figuratively transcends the borders of the audience's perception.

The dating of the textual prototype for the Zhixian scene to the 1252 Co llated Essentials of the Five Lamps , and the elaboration of a narrative prototype from the same text in the Louzi scene, undermine the identification of Eight Eminent Monks with an early thirteenth century date. The following discussion explores an alterna tive dating for the work to the Yuan period, based on a comparative analysis with the anonymous Yuan dynasty narrative handscroll painting Four Acts of Filial Piety . Both works are in ink and colours on silk, showing serial narrative scenes followed by uns igned section of prose. They are drawn in a similar deft and meticulous hand, but do not match Liang Kai's virtuoso brushwork seen in either Śākyamuni Emerging from the Mountains or The Sixth Patriarch diptych . Further to their technique and format, Eight Eminent Monks and Four Acts of Filial Piety share a common theme in their subject matter. Both paintings serialise exemplary narratives on idealised conduct of historic exemplars. 476 Their similarities in style, format, and subject matter indicate these two works date from approximately the same period of the late thirteenth to fourteenth century.

The common narrative functions of the two scrolls can be seen in a comparison of two scenes: the Louzi scene from Eight Eminent Monks , and Wang Xiang and the Fis h in the Ice 王祥冰 魚 from Four Acts of Filial Piety (figs. 6.17b - c). Both paintings describe stories from earlier dynasties, canonised in textual narratives. The texts which follow the visual narratives both appear to be original compositions adapted from hag iographic prototypes, though it is also possible that exact correlations with external texts recording these versions of the narratives will emerge through later research. The textual narrative alongside Wang Xiang and the Fish in the Ice frames the protag onist as a paradigm of filial conduct, recounting Wang's self - sacrifice in providing for his mother. The inscription presents the story in prose as follows. Wang's ill mother expresses a desire for carp to cure her sickness. In the depth of winter, Wang ma kes his way to the local lake, where he is unable to break the ice. Imploring heaven and weeping, he lies on the ice in a vain attempt to melt it with the heat of his body. In response to his filial conduct, the ice breaks, and two carp leap out of their o wn accord, which cure his mother's ailment once eaten. The narrative is then summarised in verse. 477

The core message of the Wangxiang scene is that such filial self - sacrifice elicits a spontaneous response from the natural world. This reciprocal responsiv eness of heaven to the acts of man (tianren ganying 天人感應) was part of a cosmic world-view, in which the moral dimension of human actions were believed to elicit spontaneous responses from the natural world. In this case, Heaven's response to Wang's actions was the gift of the carp, compelled to leap from the water by his tears. Like the Louzi narrative in Eight Eminent Monks, the Wangxiang scene provides a framework to venerate an abstract ideal. In the Wangxiang scene that ideal is the demonstrable benefit s of filial conduct. The Louzi scene is more enigmatic, extolling the efficacy of Chan awakening in one of its more idiosyncratic manifestations.

Though the subject matter of their respective narratives differ, both paintings use a common structure of visual language to highlight the significance of a single moment in illustrating their central ideal. The Eight Eminent Monks scene depicts Louzi in the moment immediately after his transformative awakening. He kneels before the tavern, hands clasped, and eyes looking upward toward the source of his transformation. The pictorial narrative in the Wang Xiang scenes is centred on the moment of Heaven's response to Wang's filial piety. The protagonist lies semi-naked upon the frozen lake, turning towards the carp as they emerge from the cracked ice. The artists have also included onlookers for both events, adding to the theatricality of each scene through the presence of an audience. In the Wangxiang scene, the bystanders' reverent gesture s dictate how the viewer should respond to the image in the painting. The inclusion of Daoists, Confucian officials, and passing tradesmen stresses that this expectation of reverence was universally applicable to all creeds and classes. The icy wind shown through the movement of the branches emphasises the extremity of Wang Xiang's self - sacrifice and therefore the depth of his filial piety, deploying an image absent from the textual narrative. Moreover, the wind's movement away from Wang and toward the gath ered onlookers also focuses the composition on Wang's action, as the wind appears to emanate from his prostrate figure. In the Louzi scene the audience is more perplexed than awed. Two well - dressed gentlemen turn to look at this odd cleric, bowing before a house of sin. The pointing figure has his back to the viewer, while his companion arches his eyebrows and purses his lips in a moment of utter confusion at this inexplicable behaviour. Their incomprehension serves as a reminder to the viewer that the Chan lineage and pantheon may appear eccentric, but that eccentricity often conceals profound insights.

Louzi Heshang and Wangxiang and the Fish in the Ice both illustrate paradigms of ideal action though a symbolically charged scene, contextualised by an ad jacent text. The ideologies that underpin these two works are dramatically different. One advocates the potential for spiritual awakening in unexpected circumstances, and the other venerates conspicuous feats of filial self-sacrifice. However, the painting s' common media, techniques, formats and approaches to visual narrative locate them in a common system of making and viewing paintings. This parallel of both form and function illustrates the role Chan figure painting played in the development of thirteent h to fourteenth century Chinese narrative painting. The inclusion of Liang Kai's signatures on three of the scenes in the scroll illustrates the cultural capital attached to his name in this period. Thus, Eight Eminent Monks illustrates a sustained interest in Liang's Chan oeuvre in the century after his death, preserving possibly unique Song-Yuan period representations of Chan narrative subjects such as Zhixian and Louzi.

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楼子和尚 悟道 因 缘

楼子和尚,生平及姓氏不 详,亦不知 嗣法 何人。想必是一位参禅用功日久的 行脚 僧人。

一天,楼子和尚行脚,偶然 经过一街市。在一家酒楼下,他发现自己的袜子带儿松了,于是便停下来,弯腰整理袜带。忽然听得酒楼上传来了伴娘的歌声,唱道: “…… 你既无心我也休 ……” 楼子和尚一听,忽然大悟。

因此, 时人皆称之为楼子和尚 。



Lou-ce hosang
Fordította: Terebess Gábor
Vö.: Folyik a híd, Officina Nova, Budapest, 1990, 115. oldal

Egy városi sikátorban Lou-ce szerzetesnek kibomlott a bocskorfűzője. Éppen egy mulató előtt hajolt le, hogy megkösse. Az emeletről énekszó szüremlett ki: „Ha elment az eszed, vesszen az enyém is!”
Ahogy a szerzetes meghallotta, íziben megvilágosult.