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黃龍慧南 Huanglong Huinan (1002-1069)
(Rōmaji:) Ōryū Enan / Ōryō E'nan
(Magyar:) Huang-lung Huj-nan
|Le-tan halott szavai
Fordította: Szigeti György
黃龍派 Huanglong pai (Ōryōha/ Ōryūha)
by Andy Ferguson
In: Zen's Chinese Heritage: The Masters and Their Teachings, Wisdom Publications, 2011, pp. 401-407.
HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002–69) was a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan. He came from Xinzhou (located east of the modern city of Nanchang in Jiangxi Province). He founded the Huanglong branch of Linji Zen, whose successive generations of teachers resided on Mt. Huanglong for more than 150 years until the line died out.186 Despite the relatively short existence of the school, its influence on Chinese society was widespread. The Japanese monk Myōan Esai, who is often regarded as the founder of Zen in Japan, studied with this school while visiting China.
According to the Wudeng Huiyuan, Huanglong first studied under a Zen master named Letan Chenggong, a teacher of the Yunmen school.
Huanglong was traveling with Zen master Yunfeng Yue*. One night they were talking about Yunmen’s Dharma and Yunfeng said, “Although Chenggong came after Yunmen, his Dharma is different.”
*Cuiyan Wenyue 翠嵓文悅 (998–1062), otherwise known as Yunfeng 雲峰, is said to have received formal transmission from Dayu Shouzhi 大愚守芝 (d.u.). After Dayu's death Cuiyan served as chief seat (shouzuo 首座) at Tongan Cloister 同安院 (in present day Jiangxi province) during Huanglong Huinan's 黄龍慧南 (1002–1069) tenure as abbot. He later went on to become the abbot of Cuiyan Monastery 翠嵓寺 (Jiangxi province), Falun Monastery 法輪寺 on Mt. Nanyue 南岳 (in present day Hunan province), and Yunfeng Monastery 雲峰寺 also on Mt. Nanyue. Following an old custom, Wenyue was also known by the name of the temple and/or mountain on which he served as abbot, that is, Cuiyan, Falun, and Yunfeng. For his recorded sayings, see the Guzunsu yulu (XZJ 118.671b3).
Huanglong asked, “What’s different about it?”
Yunfeng said, “Yunmen’s Dharma is like making cinnabar with nine turns of the grinder, or touching iron and turning it to gold. But Chenggong’s medicine is old hat to the disciples, and if you stick it in the forge it melts away.”
Huanglong grew angry and threw a cushion at Yunfeng.
The next day Yunfeng apologized and said, “Yunmen’s bearing is like that of a king. Are you willing to die beneath his words? Chenggong also imparts a Dharma to people. Death words. But these death words, can they also give people life?”
Yunfeng then turned to leave, but Huanglong pulled him back, saying, “If that’s so, then what teacher now lives up to your meaning?”
Yunfeng said, “Shishuang Chuyuan’s methods are known everywhere and all the disciples can see that he’s unsurpassed.” Huanglong thought to himself, “Master Yue is a student of [Dayu Zhi], but he’s sending me to see Shishuang. How can this be?”
Huanglong then went to seek out Shishuang. While on the way he heard that Shishuang was not taking students, so he went instead to Mt. Heng, where he visited the teacher Fuyan Xian. Fuyan gave Huanglong the job of temple secretary. Shortly thereafter Fuyan died, and the governor appointed Shishuang to replace him.
When Shishuang arrived, he disparaged everything at the temple, ridiculing everything he saw as wrong. Huanglong was deeply disappointed with Shishuang’s manner.
When Huanglong visited Shishuang in his abbot’s room, Shishuang said, “Chenggong studied Yunmen’s Zen, so he must surpass Yunmen’s teaching. When Yunmen spared Dongshan Shouchu three blows with the staff, did Dongshan suffer the blows or not?”
Huanglong said, “He suffered the blows.”
Shishuang said fiercely, “From morning till night the magpies cry and the crows caw, all of them in response to the blows they’ve suffered.”
Shishuang then sat in a cross-legged position, and Huanglong lit incense and bowed to him.
Shishuang later asked, “Zhaozhou said, ‘The old lady of Mt. Tai—I’ll go check her out for you.’ But where was the place he checked her out?”
Huanglong sweated profusely but he couldn’t answer.
The next day, Huanglong went to Shishuang’s room again. Shishuang berated him unceasingly. Huanglong said, “Is cursing a compassionate way of carrying out the teaching?”
Shishuang yelled, “Try cursing and see!”
At these words Huanglong experienced a great awakening. He then wrote the following verse:
The eminent adept Zhaozhou
Had his reasons for checking out the old lady.
Now the four seas are like a mirror,
And a pilgrim no longer hates the road.
The Yuxuan Yulu, a Zen text dating from the Qing dynasty period (1644–1908), offers the following story involving Huanglong Huinan:
A monk was standing and waiting to speak with Huanglong in an interview.187 Huanglong observed him for a long while, and then said, “There are a million samadhis and limitless gates [by which to enter the Way]. If I tell you something will you believe it?”
The monk said, “The master is sincere. How dare I not believe it?”
Huanglong pointed to his left and said, “Come over here.”
The monk then moved to that spot.
Huanglong cried out, “You’re following sound and chasing form!”
When the monk’s time was up he went out. Later, a different monk entered who knew what had transpired in the previous meeting.
Huanglong asked the monk the same question he had asked the previous monk. The monk responded by saying, “I dare not believe you.”
Huanglong again pointed to his left and said, “Come over here.”
The monk stood fast and didn’t move.
Huanglong cried out, “You come to confide in me and yet you don’t obey me! Get out!”
The following passages are from The Record of [Huanglong] Huinan:
Huanglong entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying, “The dharmakaya is formless, but is revealed in things. Prajna wisdom is without knowledge, but it shines in conditional existence.”
Huanglong then lifted his whisk and said, “When I lift up the whisk, it is called the dharmakaya. But here it is not revealed in a thing. When I bring the whisk down, it is called prajna wisdom. But here it does not shine in conditional existence.”
Huanglong then laughed out loud and said, “If somebody came up here and grabbed me, spit on me, gave me a slap, knocked over the meditation bench and dragged me down to the floor, then I really couldn’t blame them!
“Saying these things is like gnawing on the feet of pigs and dogs. What a state I’ve fallen to!”
Huanglong addressed the monks, saying, “Before I came up here to speak there was nothing in my mind. But now that I’ve come up here there are a lot of questions. I dare to ask you whether the great vehicle of our school is found in such questions and answers. If it were to be found in such speech, then doesn’t the scriptural canon have questions and answers? Yet it is said that [the way of Zen] is transmitted outside of the scriptural teachings. It is transmitted to individuals who are great Dharma vessels. If it can’t be found in words, then even if you ask all sorts of excellent questions, what, after all, is the point of doing so? People on pilgrimages should open their eyes. Don’t do something you’ll regret later.
“If you want to talk about it, then you can say that it can’t be realized through mystical perception or self-perfection. Nor may it be said to be a result of some all-encompassing understanding. The buddhas of the three worlds have only said you must know yourself. In the entire canon of scripture this can’t be explained. In the ancient meeting at Vulture Peak, a vast multitude assembled there, but it was only Mahakashyapa who understood.
“The Fifth Ancestor, Huangmei, had an assembly of seven hundred monks, but he passed the robe and bowl of transmission only to the pilgrim Lu [Huineng].
“How about the likes of you gathered here who are still clinging to delusive greed and ignorance? Can you overcome these things and carry forth our school? Those who leave home must have heroic resolve, cut off the two heads, and practice in seclusion in the house of the self. Afterward they must throw open the door, get rid of the possessions of that self, and then receive and meet whatever comes, giving aid to any in need. In this way the deep compassion of Buddha can be in some small measure repaid. Aside from acting in this manner, there is nothing else.”
Huanglong then struck the meditation platform with his whisk and left the hall.
Huanglong quoted a saying by Yunmen to the congregation, saying, “‘Across the broad plain are innumerable corpses. Those who pass through the forest of thorns are true adepts.’”
He then lifted his whisk and said, “You in the assembly! If you truly call it a broad plain covered with corpses, and you don’t call it a whisk, then you haven’t yet passed through the forest of thorns!”
Huanglong then got down and left the hall.
Huanglong addressed the monks, saying, “Great surging waves, vast and expansive, their billowing whitecaps fill the sky! The ones who pass through them and reach the other shore, they have righteously shed worldly concerns. They have left the solitary oarsman behind and their eyebrows are no longer knit with anxiety. If I were to ask for a single phrase from someone who has quieted the wind and pacified the waves, what would it be? Is there anyone here who can speak it? If there’s no one who can speak then I’ll do it for you.”
After a long pause, Huanglong said, “The fisherman hums a carefree song. The woodsman sings a high melody!”
Huanglong addressed the monks, saying, “The sun comes up in the east. The moon goes down in the west. Coming up; going down. From ancient times until today, all of you have completely understood this; completely observed this. It is Vairochana Buddha; limitless and fathomless…. The myriad things of our daily lives all exist in accordance with conditions. All of you! Why don’t you see? It’s concealed from you by your countless emotions. If you look deeply into causation, then you will not miss what is sacred, nor will you transcend the shadows and traces…. If, in clarity, not a single thought is born, you will be akin to the shining sun and moon, and at one with the revolving firmament. Then the Great Jailer God will give your brains an evil poke that obliterates them!”
Huanglong addressed the monks, saying, “This is the first day of the interval between practice periods. Worthy monks of the congregation! Practice the Way joyfully! At night on the long meditation platform, you can stretch your legs and fold them again whenever you please—not according to someone’s instructions. When the sun comes up you get out of bed and eat some breakfast cakes. When you’ve eaten your fill you can relax.
“At just such a time, what you are doing cannot be called ancient or contemporary. It cannot be considered good or evil. Demons and gods can’t find a trace of it. The myriad dharmas are not its partner. Earth can’t contain it and heaven can’t cover it. Although it’s like this, you still must have pupils in your eyes and blood in your veins. Without pupils in your eyes how do you differ from a blind person? Without blood in your veins, how do you differ from a dead person? Thirty years from now, you won’t be able to blame me!”
When he finished speaking, Huanglong got down from the seat and left the hall.
Huanglong, while addressing the monks, quoted a teaching by the monk Daju, saying, “‘When body, speech, and mind are pure, what is called Buddha appears in the world.188 When body, speech, and mind are impure, what is called Buddha is extinguished.’
“What a wonderful message! The ancients, according to circumstances, offered expedient means. They talked about a method for each of you here to find an entrance. Since you have an entrance, you must also find an exit. When you climb the mountain you must reach the top. When you go into the sea you must reach the bottom. If you climb a mountain but don’t reach the top, then you can’t know the vastness of the universe. If you enter the sea but don’t reach the bottom, then you can’t know the depth of the sea. When you know the vastness of the universe and the depth of the sea, then with one kick you can knock over the four seas.189 With one shove you can push over Mt. Sumeru. And when you let go, no one, even in your own family, can recognize you.
“The sparrow sings and the crow caws in the willow tree!”
The story of Huanglong’s death is narrated in the Wudeng Huiyuan.
One day, Huanglong entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying, “This mountain monk has little talent and sparse virtue, yet I’ve borne the task of being a teacher. So, not being blind to original mind, not deceiving the ancestors, not avoiding birth and death, I now avoid birth and death. Due to not leaving the wheel, I now leave the wheel. That which is not cast off is thus now cast off. That not realized is now completely realized. Thus the light of Buddhism that has passed down from the World-Honored Great Enlightened One is that not a single Dharma can be obtained. What is it that was transmitted to the Sixth Ancestor in the dead of night at Huangmei?”
Huanglong then recited the following verse:
Attaining not attaining,
Transmitting not transmitting,
How can one speak of
Returning to the root and attaining the essence?
Recalling the leaks in her old dwelling,
To what house does the new bride travel?
The next day at noon, Huanglong assumed a cross-legged sitting posture and passed away. His memorial stupa was placed on the hill before the temple. He received the posthumous title “Zen Master Universal Enlightenment.”
黃龍慧南 Huanglong Huinan (1002-1069)
黃龍派 Huanglong pai
The lineage of the Huanglong branch of the Linji school
Huanglong pai. (J. Ōryōha/Ōryūha; K. Hwangnyong p'a
黃龍派). In Chinese, ”Huanglong school”; collateral lineage of
the CHAN school's LINJI ZONG, one of the five houses and seven
schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the Chan during the Northern
Song dynasty (960–1126). The school's name comes from the
toponym of its founder, HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002–1069),
who taught at Mt. Huanglong in present-day Jiangxi province;
Huinan was a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986–1039),
himself a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school. The
Huanglong school was especially known for “lettered Chan”
(WENZI CHAN), a style of Chan that valorized belle lettres, and
especially poetry, in Chan practice. Many of the most influential
monks in the Huanglong school exemplified a period when
Chan entered the mainstream of Chinese intellectual life: their
practice of Chan was framed and conceptualized in terms that
drew from their wide learning and profound erudition, tendencies
that helped make Chan writings particularly appealing to
wider Chinese literati culture. JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071–1128),
for example, decried the bibliophobic tendencies in Chan that
were epitomized in the aphorism that Chan “does not establish
words and letters” (BULI WENZI) and advocated that Chan
insights were in fact made manifest in both Buddhist sūtras
and the uniquely Chan genres of discourse records (YULU),
lineage histories (see CHUANDENG LU), and public-case anthologies
(GONG'AN). Huanglong and YUNMEN ZONG masters made
important contributions to the developm ent of the Song Chan
literary sty les of songgu ([attaching] verses to ancient [cases])
and niangu (raising [and analyzing] ancient [cases]). Because of
their pronounced literary tendencies, many Huanglong monks
became close associates of such Song literati-officials as Su Shi
(1036–1101), Huang Tingjian (1045–1105), and ZHANG
SHANGYING (1043–1122). After the founder's death, discord
appeared within the Huanglong lineage: the second-generation
master Baofeng Kewen (1025–1102) and his disciple Juefan
Huihong criticized the practices of another second-generation
master Donglin Changzong (1025–1091) and his disciples
as clinging to silence and simply waiting for enlightenment;
this view may have influenced the subsequent criticism
of the CAODONG ZONG by DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089–1163), who
trained for a time with the Huanglong master Zhantang Wenjun
(1061–1115). The Huanglong pai was the first school of Chan
to be introduced to Japan: by MYŌAN EISAI (1141–1215), who
studied with the eighth-generation Huanglong teacher Xu'an
Huaichang (d.u.). The Huanglong pai did not survive as a separate
lineage in either country long after the twelfth century, as its
rival YANGQI PAI came to prominence; it was eventually
reabsorbed into the Yangqi lineage.
Le-tan* halott szavai
In: Zen történetek. Ford., szerk. és vál. Szigeti György, [Budapest] : Farkas Lőrinc Imre Kiadó, 1996, 78-81. oldal
Huj-nan**, Cu-ming Csu-jüan*** dharma örököse, legelőször Le-tan
mestertől kapta meg a megvilágosodás pecsétjét. Azután egy
szerzetesi csoport fejeként zarándokútra indult, tele lelkesedés-
sel és önteltséggel. Útja során véletlenül összetalálkozott Jünfeng****
szerzetessel, és együtt látogattak el a Hszi-hegyre. Egy
este, amint éppen sétáltak, Jün-feng megkérdezte útitársától,
hogy milyen tanítást kapott Le-tan mestertől. Miután Huj-nan
kifejtette Le-tan mester zenjének lényegét, Jün-feng így véle-
- Meglehet, hogy Le-tan Jün-men***** mester vonalához tarto-
zik, mégis a két mester teljesen eltérő módon mutatja az utat
Huj-nan megkérte, hogy fejtse ki a különbséget. Jün-feng így
- Jün-men olyan, mint egy halhatatlanság-pirula, amit ki-
lencszer csiszoltak, míg tökéletesen áttetsző nem lelt: a vas
arannyá változott át. Le-tan olyan, mint a higany, ezzel téveszt
meg téged, de elodázza a pillanatot, amikor be kellene lépnie
Huj-nan dühbe gurult, amiért a társa így beszélt tanítójáról.
Felkapott egy favánkost, és mérgesen Jün-fenghez vágta.
Másnap reggel Jün-feng bocsánatot kért Huj-nantól.
- Jün-men olyan nagy lélek, mint egy király. Gondolod, ér-
dekelnék azok a halott szavak, melyek már elhagyták a száját?
Biztos vagyok benne, hogy elérte a megvilágosodást, de amit
elmondott, azokban nincs élet. Ha szavai halottak, akkor ho-
gyan remélheti azt, hogy azok tanítványaiban életre kelnek?
Majd sarkon fordult és indulni készült, mire Huj-nan utána
szólt és megkérdezte:
- Kit tartasz jó tanítónak?
- Cu-ming Csu-jüant - felelte Jün-feng. - Ahogyan tanítvá-
nyaival bánik, az messze felülmúlja a kor más tanítóit. Menj el
hozzá, ne vesztegess több időt!
Jün-feng és Huj-nan elbúcsúztak egymástól. Huj-nan hátára
vette batyuját és elindult Cu-ming templomába.
Később Huj-nan hallotta Cu-minget tanítani, ahogy ócsárol-
ja az ország majdnem minden egyes zen tanítóját, rámutatva
hibáikra. Amikor éppen azt a tanítást kritizálta, amit Huj-nan
személyesen Le-tan mestertől kapott, a fiatal szerzetes felbő-
szülten elhagyta Cu-ming templomát. Néhány lépés után azon-
ban eszébe jutott, mit mondott neki Jün-feng a mester tanítási
képességéről, és visszatért. Odament Cu-ming mesterhez és így
- Műveletlen és tapasztalatlan vagyok. Remélem, hogy el-
érem az Utat, de mégsem haladok az Úton. Hallva tanítását,
úgy éreztem magam, mint az útját vesztett ember, aki iránytűt
talál. Kérem, szanion meg engem! Tanítson és segítsen nekem
Cu-ming felnevetett és így válaszolt:
- Hallottunk már rólad itt a csarnokban. Te vagy az, aki zen
tanítókat látogatsz szer Le az országban egy szerzetesi csoport-
tal. Ha kétségeid vannak, miért cipeled azokat magaddal?
Miért nem maradsz itt nálam, és gyakorolsz addig, amíg elosz-
Cu-ming szólL egyik szolgájának, hogy kínálja hellyel Huj-
nant, de ő visszautasította. Majd tovább könyörgött a mester-
nek, hogy segítsen neki.
- Jün-men zenjének követőjeként - mondta Cu-ming - be
kellene látnod annak alapelveit. Emlékszel arra, amikor Jün-
men megkímélte Sou-csut három botütéstől? Gondolod, hogy
Sou-csu megérdemelte volna az ütéseket? Vagy szerinted rend-
jén volt, hogy nem kapta meg azokat?
- Természetesen megérdemelte volna - felelte Huj-nan.
- Hallod a bot szót, és azonnal azt mondod, hogy megérde-
melte volna az ütéseket. Sou-csu napkeltétől napnyugtáig üté-
seket érdemelt volna. Jün-mennek agyon kellett volna vernie
őt, nem? - kérdezte komoran a mester,
Huj-nan értetlenül bámult, mire Cu-ming így szólt:
- Amikor először megláttalak, nem voltam biztos benne,
hogy képes leszek tanítani téged. De most látom, hogy ez nem
Huj-nan szertartásosan leborult előtte, s ezzel tanítványa
lett. Cu-ming így folytatta:
- Ha valóban megérted Jün-men zenjének jelentését, azon-
nal mondd el nekem. Amikor Csao-csou találkozott a Tai he-
gyen egy idős asszonnyal, azt mondta, kiismerte azon nyom-
ban. Mi volt az, amit meglátott benne?
Huj-nan arca elvörösödött, kiverte a veríték. A legcseké-
lyebb fogalma sem volt arról, hogyan válaszoljon. Mélyen meg-
szégyenülve felállt és kicsörtetett a szobából.
Másnap, amikor Huj-nan elment Cu-minghez, az ócsárolva
fogadta. Huj-nan zavarodottan kikerülte Cu-ming tekintetét, és
- Nem tudom, miért jövök ide. Talán, hogy választ találjak -
makogta Huj-nan, - Azt nevezi maga együttérzésnek, ahogy
a tanítványaival bánik? Hogyan lehet a Dharmát ilyen úton-
Cu-ming csak kacagott. Erre Huj-nan hirtelen megértette.
- Igaza volt! - kiáltotta. - Azok Le-tan halott szavai!
Nevek pontosítása (Terebess Gábortól):
* 泐潭呈貢 Letan Chenggong (é.n.)
** 黃龍慧南 Huanglong Huinan (1002-1069)
*** 石霜/慈明 楚圓 Shishuang/Ciming Chuyuan (986–1039)
**** Cuiyan Wenyue 翠嵓文悅 (998–1062), alias Yunfeng 雲峰
***** 雲門文偃 Yunmen Wenyan (864–949)