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破有法王 Hau Hōō [冨永秀甫 Tominaga Shūho]

Gendai sōjizen hyōron
(English:) A Critique of Present-day Pseudo-Zen
(Magyar:) A mai ál-zen kritikája

Compiled in 1916 by 破有法王 Hau Hōō (”The Arch-Destroyer of the Existent Order”) [pseud. 冨永秀甫 Tominaga Shūho]
Gendai sōjizen hyōron 現代相似禪評論 Tokyo: Shūbunsha, 1916. Reprint: 1935. 2nd reprint: 1971, Tokyo: Mizuoho Shoten

[Translation of the first part of Gendai sōjizen hyōron]

The Sound of the One Hand:
281 Zen Koans with Answers, tr. with a commentary by Yoel Hoffmann;
foreword by Zen Master Hirano Sōjō; introd. by Ben-Ami Scharfstein,
Basic Books, New York, 1975. Paladin, St. Albans, 1977, 344 p.



Translator’s Note



The Koan on the Sound of the One Hand and the Koan on Mu

The Way of the Inzan School

The Way of the Takujū School



Miscellaneous Koans


The One Hundred Forty-Four Koans

1. The Man up the Tree

2. The Man in the Well

3. Why a Monk’s Garment?

4. The World a Grain of Rice

5. The Three Gates of Master Ōryū

6. Where Do the Snowflakes Fall?

7. Round Are the Lotus Leaves

8. The Sound of Rain

9. The Three Questions of Master Tosō

10. The Sentence of Being and the Sentence of Nothing

11. Subject, Object

12. The Unrankable Being

13. A Flower in Bloom

14. Will IT Be Destroyed?

15. Where Will ONE Return To?

16. There Is No Such Thing as Holy

17. Words

18. The Four Ways of Master Rinzai

19. The Three Sentences of Master Rinzai

20. Before and After

21. To Beat the Drum

22. No Great Masters?

23. Where Did Nansen Go after His Death?

24. One, Two, Three

25. An Iron Cow

26. Similar to a Dream

27. “Not Affected,” “Not Deluded”

28. Where Thing Does Not Contradict Thing

29. What Will You Call It?

30. Stick!

31. The Emperor and the Bowl

32. How Is Your Health?

33. The Gate!

34. Unforgivable

35. How Do You Say It?

36. Discuss Buddhist Law

37. Simultaneous Doubt and Enlightenment

38. Don’t You Believe Me Now?

39. I Never Said a Word . . .

40. Where in the World Are They?

41. A Bottle Is a Bottle

42. A Silver Bowl Filled with Snow

43. Every Coral Branch Supports the Moon

44. An Open-eyed Man Falls into the Well

45. In Relation to One

46. In Opposition to One

47. Are You Alive?

48. The One-Piece Tower

49. No Meaning

50. It Is Somewhat a Pity

51. A Few Here, a Few There

52. Where Is the Mind?

53. A Speck of Dust

54. Gya!

55. Nyan

56. Come and Eat Your Rice

57. Playing Ball on Rapid Water

58. Playing with Mud

59. The Sturdy Body of Truth

60. Put Together

61. “Say Nothing” and Nothing Said

62. Which Is Your Self?

63. Blind, Deaf, Dumb

64. Sound

65. What Do You Understand by This?

66. Not Keeping Silent, Not Using Words

67. Taking a Bath

68. Without Cold, Without Heat

69. What Do You Have in Mind?

70. Don’t Fancy

71. Buddha’s Master

72. Swallow a River?!

73. Thought of the Moment

74. Where Is My Rhino?

75. Ōbaku’s Stick

76. The Three Sentences of Master Rinzai (Continuation of koan 19)

77. On an Isolated Peak; At the Crossroads

78. Why Can’t the Tail Go Through?

79. What Is Jōshū?

80. A Shell Holding Moonlight

81. It Is Your Hearts That Move

82. The Immovable Cloak

83. What the Old Woman Meant

84. The Tortoise Is a Turtle

85. Cut!

86. When the Sail Is Hoisted

87. Why Don’t People In Know about Out?

88. Where Is the Old Man Going?

89. Yet I Should Not Be Rash

90. Every Day Is a Good Day

91. Without Caring, Go Straight

92. Seven

93. I Have a Lot of Things to Do

94. Rice in a Bowl, Water in a Bucket

95. I Have a Headache Today

96. “All Over”; “Throughout”

97. Why Is That Thing Not You?

98. Go and Have Some Tea

99. Made a Fool Of

100. “Wrong!”

101. Tread on the Head of Buddha

102. The Body Emits Autumn Wind

103. The Mind as It Is

104. No Mind, No Buddha

105. One

106. Take Care!

107. What Will You Do after Three or Four Shouts?

108. Non-Attachment

109. Calamity! Calamity!

110. Use the Air as Paper

111. What Is Your Feeling at This Moment?

112. Of a Different Color

113. Beard

114. It Is Here

115. Is There? Is There?

116. Where Do You Come From?

117. One Got It, One Missed It

118. Yes

119. Three Pounds of Flax

120. Even Up Till Now

121. One Finger

122. It Is Important That the World Be in Peace

123. Mother and Father

124. The Eastern Mountain Walks on Water

125. Youngsters Like You Never Know of That

126. The Guy Understands This Time

127. How Can We Go Through Without Interfering?

128. Peach Blossoms

129. I Have Nothing to Hide from You

130. Bamboo Shoots Sprout Sideways under a Rock

131. Not Enter Nirvana, Not Fall into Hell

132. High Rank, Low Rank

133. The Oak Tree in the Front Garden

134. That Is Still Not Enough

135. Give, Grab

136. The Three Sentences of Master Busshō

137. Which One Is Real?

138. Only There Is a Word That Is Not Very Proper

139. Functions Like Theft

140. The Four Shouts of Master Rinzai

141. First, Second, Third

142. Host and Guest

143. The Dragon Bitten by a Snake

144. Zen



Notes and Commentary

Notes to Part One: The Koan on the Sound of the One Hand and the Koan on Mu

 The Way of the Inzan School

 The Way of the Takujū School

Notes to Part Two: Miscellaneous Koans

Notes to Part Three: The One Hundred Forty-Four Koans

Sources to the Koans of Part Three

Sources to the Koans of Part Three
Note that the titles of the koans in this book are those of the translator. The abbreviations of the sources are as follows:

Kattōshū = KT       
= HG
Mumonkan = MK       
= RR

  1. KT, MK (5)
  2. KT
  3. KT, MK (16)
  4. HG (5)
  5. KT
  6. HG (42)
  7. ——
  8. HG (46)
  9. KT, MK (47)
  10. KT
  11. RR, KT
  12. RR, KT
  13. HG (39)
  14. HG (29)
  15. HG (45)
  16. HG (1)
  17. HG (2)
  18. RR, KT
  19. RR, KT
  20. HG (21)
  21. HG (44)
  22. HG (11)
  23. KT
  24. KT
  25. HG (38)
  26. HG (40)
  27. KT, MK (2)
  28. KT
  29. KT
  30. KT, MK (42)
  31. KT
  32. HG (3)
  33. HG (8)
  34. KT
  35. KT
  36. KT
  37. KT
  38. KT
  39. KT
  40. KT
  41. MK (40)
  42. HG (13)
  43. HG (100)
  44. KT
  45. HG (14)
  46. HG (15)
  47. HG (16)
  48. HG (18)
  49. HG (20)
  50. HG (23)
  51. HG (35)
  52. HG (37)
  53. HG (61)
  54. HG (63), MK (14)
  55. HG (64), MK (14)
  56. HG (74)
  57. HG (80)
  58. HG (81)
  59. HG (82)
  60. HG (83)
  61. HG (84)
  62. HG (87)
  63. HG (88)
  64. KT
  65. MK (8)
  66. MK (36), KT
  67. HG (78)
  68. HG (43)
  69. HG (69)
  70. KT
  71. KT, MK (45)
  72. KT
  73. KT
  74. HG (91)
  75. KT, RR
  76. KT, RR
  77. KT, RR
  78. KT, MK (38)
  79. HG (9)
  80. HG (90)
  81. KT, MK (29)
  82. KT, MK (23)
  83. MK (31)
  84. KT
  85. HG (66)
  86. KT
  87. KT
  88. KT, MK (13)
  89. HG (4)
  90. HG (6)
  91. HG (25)
  92. HG (47)
  93. HG (49)
  94. HG (50)
  95. HG (73)
  96. HG (89)
  97. HG (94)
  98. HG (95)
  99. HG (97)
  100. HG (98)
  101. HG (99)
  102. HG (27)
  103. MK (30), KT
  104. MK (33)
  105. RR
  106. KT
  107. HG (10)
  108. RR
  109. RR
  110. KT
  111. KT
  112. KT
  113. KT, MK (4)
  114. MK (48)
  115. KT, MK (11)
  116. KT
  117. MK (26)
  118. MK (17)
  119. HG (12), MK (18)
  120. KT
  121. HG (19), MK (3)
  122. KT
  123. KT
  124. KT
  125. KT
  126. KT
  127. MK (24)
  128. KT
  129. KT
  130. KT
  131. KT
  132. MK (42)
  133. KT, MK (37)
  134. KT
  135. KT, MK (44)
  136. KT
  137. KT, MK (35)
  138. KT
  139. KT
  140. KT, RR
  141. KT, RR
  142. RR
  143. KT
  144. KT

Never before has it been possible for an English-speaking reader to experience the profound exchange which occurs between a Zen master and his student. Here for the first time, is the series of questions, or "koans", together with the answers, through which the Zen master initiates the novice into the wisdom of Zen. (from front flap)

"When the Japanese edition of this book, Gendai Sōjizen Hyōron ("A Critique of Present-day Pseudo-Zen"), was first published in 1916, it caused a great sensation. The reason for this lay in the fact that the koans and their answers had been secretly transmitted from master to pupil in the Rinzai sect since the origination of the koan-teaching system in Japan by Zen Master Hakuin (1686-1769). This publication of the "secrets" of Zen seems to have, embarrassed many masters at that time. Furthermore, I have heard that the recent appearance of photocopies of this 1916 edition has caused alarm among Zen masters of today... More than fifty years have passed since the Japanese publication of Gendai Sōjizen Hyōron, which can now be said to deserve the status of a classic of Zen."
(From the foreword by Zen Master Hirano Sōjō)

Excerpts from The Sound of the One Hand, pp. 47-51.

Translated into German, Chinese and Hebrew:

Hoffmann, Yoel: Der Ton der einen Hand. Die bisher geheimen Antworten auf die wichtigsten Zen-Koans. 1.Aufl., Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, Bern / München / Wien, 1978. 336 S.  

禪門公案秘傳 : 隻手之聲 / 霍甫曼著 ; 徐進夫譯 (Taipei : 志文出版社, 1983)


[Translation of the final part of Gendai sōjizen hyōron]

PDF: Every End Exposed:
The 100 Koans of Master Kidō with the Answers of Hakuin-Zen, tr. with a commentary by Yoel Hoffmann;
foreword by Hirano Sōjō;
Autumn Press, Brookline, Mass., 1977, 128 p.
A translation of 虚堂和尚語錄 Xutang heshang yulu [Japanese: Kidō oshō goroku / Kidōgoroku]
by the Chinese teacher 虚堂智愚 Xutang Zhiyu (1185-1269), Japanese: Kidō Chigu),
with comments by the Japanese teacher 白隱慧鶴 Hakuin Ekaku (1686–1769).

The present volume consists primarily of an annotated translation of the Kidōgoroku [The sayings of Master Kidō], a text held in very high regard by Zen practitioners. This ancient Chinese masterpiece, together with the later Japanese responses to it, constitutes the final part of the Gendai Sōjizen Hyōron.
I wish to draw the attention of the reader to the fact that in Master Kidō's comments to these hundred koans, there are also no secrets. These comments were made known to Zen novices and devotees right from the beginning. I think that they are as close as one can possibly come to a "perfect" answer to a koan, and, in my view, the "secret" answers later appended by Hakuin's school of Japanese Zen were, at best, superfluous.
(From the foreword by Zen Master Hirano Sōjō)


Kidō oshō goroku (Kidōgoroku). 100 Kōan
Deutsch von Guido Keller & Yamada Tarō
Kostenlose PDF-Version: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7mxGepKrr8IbFFTQWdPZFFkV0k/edit?pref=2&pli=1





密参 = secret study, ”The student might even keep a written record of the transmission, a missan notebook (missanchō), preserving the details of the encounters in which he received the teacher's secret instruction on a particular koan or series of kōans.” (Peter Haskel)

Missan-roku 密参録 = records of secret interviews; oral transmission (a book which describes the Zen questioning and answering carried out between Zen priests)

missanchō = esoteric commentary on kōans; records of kōan interviews; missan notebook

mitsumitsu sanketsu 密密参決 = resolution through meticulous instructions

”In Rinzai lineages these manuals are known as missanroku and missanchō (Records of Secret Instructions). In Soto these texts are referred to as monsan, a word that appears to be an abbreviation of the more descriptive term monto hissan (the secret instructions of this lineage).”
John Daido Loori, Thomas Yuho Kirchner: Sitting with Koans: essential writings on Zen Koan introspection

”Tominaga Shuho first revealed the content and structure of missanroku when — under the pseudonym "Hau Hōō" (ie., a traditional term for Buddhism as the ”King of the Teachings that Refute Substantiality")—he published Gendai sōjizen no hyōron, a criticism of the kōan training taught in Rinzai lineages and one missanroku. The missanroku portion of Tominaga's book has been translated by Yoel Hoffmann, The Sound of the One Hand: 281 Zen Koans with Answers.
William M. Bodiford : Sōtō Zen in medieval Japan




PDF: Zen and the Art of Nourishing Life: Labor, Exhaustion, and the Malady of Meditation
by Juhn Y. Ahn
Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 35/2: 177–229 © 2008 Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture



What Is the Sound of One Hand Clapping?
Excerpts from The Sound of the One Hand, pp. 47-51.

Painting by Hakuin Ekaku (1686-1768)

The Way of the Inzan School
A. The Koan on the Sound of the One Hand

In clapping both hands a sound is heard: what is the sound of the one hand?

The pupil faces his master, takes a correct posture, and without a word, thrusts one hand forward.


入室 Nisshitsu. Watercolor sketch by 佐藤義英 Satō Giei (1921-1967) at 東福寺 Tōfuku-ji, Kyoto, 1939


If you've heard the sound of the one hand, prove it.

Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

It's said that if one hears the sound of the one hand, one becomes a Buddha.  Well then, how will you do it?

Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

After you've become ashes, how will you hear it?

Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

What if the one hand is cut by the Suimo Sword (the sharpest of all swords)?

"It can't be."
"If it can, let me see you do it." So saying, the pupil extends his hand forward.
Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

Why can't it cut the one hand?

"Because the one hand pervades the universe."

Then show me something that contains the universe.

Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

The before-birth-one hand, what is it like?

Without a word, the pupil thrusts one hand forward.

The Mt. Fuji-summit-one-hand, what is it like?

The pupil shading his eyes with one hand, takes the pose of looking down from the summit of Mt. Fuji and says, "What a splendid view!" naming several places to be seen from Mt. Fuji - or others would name places visible from where they happen to be.

Attach a quote to the Mt. Fuji-summit-one-hand.

Floating clouds connected the sea and the mountain,
And white flat plains spread into the states of Sei and Jo.

Did you hear the sound of the one hand from the back or from the front?

Extending one hand, the pupil repeatedly says, "Whether it's from the front or from the back, you can hear it as you please"
"From the back it's caw! caw! [the sound of a crow]. From the front it's chirp, chirp [the sound of a sparrow."

Now that you've heard the sound of the one hand, what are you going to do?

I'll pull weeds, scrub the floor, and if you're tired, give you a massage.

If it's a convenient thing, let me hear it too!

Without a word, the pupil slaps his master's face.

The one hand - how far will it reach?

The pupil places his hand on the floor and says, "This is how far it goes."

The before-the-fifteenth-day-one-hand, the after-the-fifteenth-day-one-hand, what's it like?

The pupil extends his right hand and says, "This is the before-the-fifteenth-day-one-hand."  Extending his left hand he says, "This is the after-the fifteenth-day-one-hand."  Bringing his hands together he says, "This is the fifteenth-day-one-hand."

The sublime-sound-of-the-one-hand, what is it like?

The pupil immediately imitates the sound he happens to hear when sitting in front of his master. That is, if it happens to be raining outside, he imitates the sound of rain, "Pitter-patter"; if at that moment a bird happens to call, he says, "Caw! Caw!" imitating a bird's call.

The soundless-voice-of-the-one-hand, what is it like?

Without a word, the pupil abruptly stands up, then sits down again, bowing in front of his master.

The true-[mental]-sphere-of-the-one-hand, what's it like?

"I take it to be as fleeting as a dream or phantom, or as something like an illusory flower. That's how I think of it."

The source of the one hand, what is it?

"On the plain there is not the slightest breeze that stirs the smallest grain of sand."
                All communication with places north of the
                 White Wolf River is disconnected,
                And south to the Red Phoenix City,
                 autumn nights have grown so long."




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