ZEN IRODALOM ZEN LITERATURE
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長蘆宗賾 Changlu Zongze (d. 1107?)
Honorific title: 慈覺大師 Cijue Dashi (Great Teacher “Compassionate Enlightenment”)
坐禪儀 Zuochan yi
(Rōmaji:) Chōro Sōsaku: Zazen-gi
(English:) Models for Sitting Meditation
禪苑清規 Chanyuan qinggui
(Rōmaji:) Chōro Sōsaku: Zenen shingi
(English:) Rules of purity for the Chan Monastery
Compiled in 1103
Changlu Zongze. (J. Chōro Sōsaku; K. Changno Chongsaek 長蘆宗賾) (d.u.; fl. c.
late eleventh to early twelfth centuries). Chinese CHAN monk of the YUNMEN
ZONG. Little is known about his life, but Changlu is said to have been a native of
Yongnian in Luozhou, in present-day Henan province. Changlu also seems to
have had a close relation to the disciples of Tianyi Yihuai (993–1064), himself a
disciple of the Yunmen Chan master XUEDOU CHONGXUAN. Changlu
eventually became a student of Tianyi’s disciples Fayun Faxiu (1027–1090) and
Changlu Yingfu (d.u.), and later inherited the latter’s lineage. Changlu Zongze is
most famous for his compilation of the influential text on Chan monastic
regulations or “rules of purity” (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI,
during his tenure at the Chan monastery Hongji chanyuan in 1103. When a
revised edition of the Chanyuan qinggui was published in 1202, the meditation
manual ZUOCHAN YI, probably composed by Changlu or his colleagues, was
included. Changlu is also remembered as a PURE LAND adept renowned for his
rigorous practice of NIANFO, the recitation of the name of the buddha
AMITĀBHA. He later moved to Changlu in present-day Jiangxi province,
whence he acquired his toponym. Changlu was later given the title Chan master
Cijue (Compassionate Enlightenment).
The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (PDF, 2014)
The Zuochanyi by Changlu Zongze
PDF: Form of Zazen
Models for Sitting Meditation / Cijiao of Changlu
Cijiao's Rules for Meditation
120 Questions from the Zenen Shingi
The Zuochanyi by Changlu Zongze
from Carl Bielefeldt. Dōgen's Manuals of Zen Meditation. University of California Press, 1988.
The Bodhisattva who studies prajñā should first arouse the thought of great compassion, make the extensive vows, and then carefully cultivate samādhi. Vowing to save sentient beings, he should not seek liberation for himself alone.
Then cast aside all involvements and discontinue all affairs. Make body and mind one, with no division between action and rest. Regulate food and drink, so that you take neither too much nor too little; adjust sleep, so that you neither deprive nor indulge yourself.
When you sit in meditation, spread a thick mat in a quiet place. Loosen your robe and belt, and assume a proper demeanor. Then sit in the full cross-legged position. First place your right foot on your left thigh; then place your left foot on your right thigh. Or you may sit in the half cross-legged position: simply rest your left foot on your right foot. Next, place your right hand on your left foot, and your left hand on your right palm. Press the tips of your thumbs together. Slowly raise your torso and stretch it forward. Swing to the left and right; then straighten your body and sit erect. Do not lean to the left or right, forward or backward. Keep your hips, back, neck, and head in line, making your posture like a stūpa. But do not strain your body upward too far, lest it make your breathing forced and unsettled. Your ears should be in line with your shoulders, and your nose in line with your navel. Press your tongue against the front of your palate, and close your lips and teeth. The eyes should remain slightly open, in order to prevent drowsiness. If you attain samādhi [with the eyes open], it will be the most powerful. In ancient times, there were monks eminent in the practice of meditation who always sat with their eyes open. More recently, the Ch'an master Fa-yün Yüan-t'ung criticized those who sit in meditation with their eyes closed, likening [their practice] to the ghost cave of the Black Mountain. Surely this has a deep meaning, known to those who have mastered [meditation practice].
Once you have settled your posture and regulated your breathing, you should relax your abdomen. Do not think of any good or evil whatsoever. Whenever a thought occurs, be aware of it; as soon as you aware of it, it will vanish. If you remain for a long period forgetful of objects, you will naturally become unified. This is the essential art of tso-ch'an. Honestly speaking, tso-ch'an is the dharma gate of ease and joy. If there are many people who become ill [from its practice], it is because they do not take proper care.
If you grasp the point of this [practice], the four elements [of the body] will become light and at ease, the spirit will be fresh and sharp, thoughts will be correct and clear; the flavor of the dharma will sustain the spirit, and you will be calm, pure, and joyful. One who has already achieved clarification [of the truth] may be likened to the dragon gaining the water or the tiger taking to the mountains. And even one who has not yet achieved it, by letting the wind fan the flame, will not have to make much effort. Just assent to it; you will not be deceived. Nevertheless, as the path gets higher, demons flourish, and agreeable and disagreeable experiences are manifold. Yet if you just keep right thought present, none of them can obstruct you. The Śūraṅgama-sūtra, T'ien-t'ai's Chih-kuan, and Kuei-feng's Hsiu-cheng i give detailed explications of these demonic occurrences, and those who would be prepared in advance for the unforeseen should be familiar with them.
When you come out of samādhi, move slowly and arise calmly; do not be hasty or rough. After you have left samādhi, always employ appropriate means to protect and maintain the power of samādhi, as though you were protecting an infant. Then your samādhi power will easily develop. This one teaching of meditation is our most urgent business. If you do not practice meditation and enter dhyāna, then when it comes down to it, you will be completely at a loss. Therefore, to seek the pearl, we should still the waves; if we disturb the water, it will be hard to get. When the water of meditation is clear, the pearl of the mind will appear of itself. Therefore, the Perfect Enlightenment Sūtra says, ”Unimpeded, immaculate wisdom always arises dependent on meditation.” The Lotus Blossom Sūtra says, “In a quiet place, he practices the control of the mind, abiding motionless like Mt. Sumeru.” Thus, transcending the profane and surpassing the holy are always contingent on the condition of dhyāna; shedding [this body] while seated and fleeing [this life] while standing are necessarily dependent on the power of samādhi. Even if one devotes himself to the practice his entire life, he may still not be in time; how then could one who procrastinates possibly overcome karma? Therefore, an ancient has said, ”Without the power of samādhi, you will meekly cower at death's door.” Shutting your eyes, you will end your life in vain; and just as you are, you will drift [in saṃsāra].
Friends in Ch'an, go over this text again and again. Benefiting others as well as ourselves, let us together achieve full enlightenment.
Models for Sitting Meditation / Cijiao of Changlu
In: Minding Mind: A Course in Basic Meditation
Translated by Thomas Cleary
Boston, Mass. : Shambhala, 1995. 2nd Revised edition edition, 2009
1. Those who aspire to enlightenment and who would learn wisdom should first arouse an attitude of great compassion and make an all-encompassing vow to master concentration, promising to liberate other people, not seeking liberation for your own self alone.
2. Then and only then should you let go of all objects and ought to rest all concerns, so that body and mind are one suchness, and there is no gap between movement and stillness.
3. Moderate your food and drink, taking neither to much nor too little. Regulate your sleep, neither restricting it too much nor indulging in it too much.
4. When you are going to sit in meditation, spread a thick sitting at in a quiet, uncluttered place. Wear your clothing loosely, but maintain uniform order in your posture and carriage.
5. Then sit in the lotus posture, first placing the right foot on the left thigh, then placing the left foot on the right thigh. The
half-lotus posture will also do; just put the left foot on the right leg, that is all.
6. Next, place the right hand on the left ankle, and place the left hand, palm up, on the palm of the right hand. Have the thumbs of both hands brace each other up.
7. Slowly raise the body forward, and also rock to the left and right, then sit straight. Do not lean to the left or right, do not tilt forward or backward. Align the joints of your hips, your spine, and the base of the skull so that they support each other, your form like a stupa. Yet you should not make your body too extremely erect, for that constricts the breathing and makes it uncomfortable. The ears should be aligned with the shoulders, the nose with the navel. The tongue rests on the
upper palate, the lips and teeth are touching.
8. The eyes should be slightly open, to avoid brining on oblivion and drowsiness. If you are going to attain meditation concentration, that power is supreme. In ancient times there were eminent monks specializing in concentration practice who always kept their eyes open when they sat. Chan Master Fayun Yuantong also scolded people for sitting in meditation with their eyes closed, calling it a ghost cave in a mountain of darkness. Evidently there is deep meaning in this, of which adepts are aware.
9. Once the physical posture is settled and the breath is tuned, then relax your lower abdomen. Do not think of anything good or bad. When a thought arises, notice it; when you become aware of it, it disappears. Eventually you forget mental objects and spontaneously become unified. This is the essential art of sitting Zen meditation.
10. In spite of the fact that sitting Zen meditation is a scientific way to peace and bliss, many people do it in a pathological manner that brings on sickness. This is because they do not apply their minds correctly. If you get the true sense, then your body will naturally feel light and easy, while your vital spirit will be clear and keen. True mindfulness is distinctly clear, the savor of truth sustains the spirit, and you experience pure bliss in a state of profound serenity.
11. For those who have already had an awakening, this can be said to be like a dragon finding water, like a tier in the mountains. For those who have not yet had an awakening, it is still using the wind to blow on the fire, the effort required is not much. Just make the mind receptive and you will not be cheated.
12. Nevertheless, when the Way is lofty, demons abound, all sorts of things offend and please. As long as you keep true mindfulness present, however, none of this can hold you back.
13. The Shurangama-sutra , the Tiantai manuals of "stopping and seeing," and Guifengs Guidelines for Cultivation and Realization fully explains bedevilments. Those whose preparation is insufficient should not fail to know these.
14. When you want to come out of concentration, slowly rock the body and rise calmly and carefully avoiding haste.
15. After coming out of concentration, at all times use whatever means expedient to preserve the power of concentration, as if you were taking care of a baby. Then the power of concentration will be easy to perfect.
16. Meditation concentration is a most urgent task. If you do not meditate calmly and reflect quietly, you will be utterly at loss in this domain. So if you are going to look for a pearl, it is best to still the waves; it will be hard to find if you stir the water. When the water of concentration is still clear, the pearl of mind reveals itself.
17. Therefore The Scipture of Complete Awakening says, "Unhindered pure wisdom all comes from meditation concentration." The Lotus Scripture says, "In an unoccupied space, practice collecting the mind, stabilizing it so that it is as immovable as the Polar Mountain." So we know that in order to transcend the ordinary and go beyond the holy, one
must make use of quiet meditation; to die sitting or pass away standing, one must depend on the power of concentration.
18. Even if you work on it all your life, you still may not succeed; how much more so if you waste time! What will you use to counteract karma? This is why the ancients said that if one lacks the power of concentration one willingly submits to death, living out one's life in vain, unseeing, like a wandering vagrant.
19. I hope that companions in meditation will read this tract over and over, to help themselves and help others alike to attain true awakening.
Cijiao's Rules for Meditation
by master Cijiao (Compassionate Awakening) from Chang-lu (written 1103). Date of birth is not known, he was ordained in 1089.
Zenmaster Dogen used parts of Cijao's Rules for meditation for his Zazen for anyone anywhere (Fukanzazengi).
Translated by Hakuun Barnhard
If you wish to train for the wisdom of enlightened being, you must first arouse the heart of great compassion and take the all-embracing (bodhisattva)-vow: to become versed in the practice of samadhi and liberate all beings, so you do not solely seek freedom for yourself.
Only then must you let go of all appearances, let all phenomena rest, so that your body and mind can be one ‘just as it is-ness' and no gap exists between activity and stillness.
Take food and drink in moderation, neither too much nor too little. Regulate your sleep, neither too long nor too short. When you are going to meditate, choose a quiet restful spot and put a thick cushion down. Loosen up your belt and clothing, and assume the proper posture and composure.
Then fold your legs together crossed into a knot (the Lotus-position). First let the right foot rest on top of the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh. To cross just the one leg is also all right, then only put the left foot on top of the right thigh. Next, rest the right hand on the left foot and the left hand in the palm of the right one, with the thumbs touching and propping each other up.
Slowly rock back and forth, left and right. Then sit steadily up straight, without leaning to left or right, backward or forward. The vertebrae of the lower back, spine and neck should be aligned with the top of the head and hold each other up, your shape like a stupa. But you must not rise up your body too much so your energy gets excited.
Keep your ears in line with the shoulders and your nose in line with your navel. Hold your tongue pressed against your top teeth, with your lips and teeth together. Your eyes must be slightly open, to avoid dozing or falling asleep. For finding meditative stability (ch'an ting), this is the most powerful. In the past, eminent monks who practiced sitting in meditation, always have been sitting with open eyes.
Master Fa-yun Yuan-tong reprimanded those meditating with their eyes closed; he called it “(sitting in) a dark mountain-ghost cave”. This has deep meaning, as experienced meditators know.
After your posture is settled and your breath regulated, you let your lower abdomen extend in a relaxed way. Do not get involved in thoughts about good or bad. When a thought arises, be aware of it; in awareness it is let go off. When you forget all reasoning for a long time, you naturally become one. This is the art of meditation.
I venture to say that this sitting in meditation is the Dharma-gate to peace and joy. That many people become ill, is because they do not use their mind with careful attention. When you do sit with the right mind, the four elements naturally come to peace, your spirits become alive and bright, right thought clearly stands out. Then the flavour of the Dharma safeguards your spirit, which will be serene, lucid and joyful.
Someone who has clarified existence (i.e.: what we are), can be called a dragon that has found water, or a tiger that reached the (free) mountains. Those who still have to do so – keep letting the wind blow on the fire. Much effort is not needed. Merely see and follow the true heart and you surely will not be deceived.
But when the Way is lofty, there are plenty of pitfalls (lit: demons); all manner of things attract and offend. But when we keep right mindfulness present, this all cannot hold us back.
As the Shurangama-Sutra , the Tiantai writings about “stopping and looking”, and Master Gui Feng's How to Practice Realisation, are all concerned with exposing hindrances, they are a ‘must know' for those who are not well prepared.
When you wish to arise from meditation, slowly move the body and carefully get up, not abruptly. After coming out of meditation and getting up, do at all times what is beneficial; protect and maintain the power of stillness as if you protect your baby child. This way you can perfect the power of meditative stability.
The grounded stillness of meditation is a most urgent matter. If you do not practice this quiet sitting, anxiety enters the serenity and you will end up in a daze. So, who searches the jewel must still the waves; in restless waters it is hard to find. Quiet stability settles and clarifies the water so that the jewel of the heart-mind will naturally show itself.
Therefore the Perfect Enlightenment Sutra says: “Unimpeded pure wisdom entirely depends on the presence of the grounded stillness of meditation.” The Lotus Sutra says: “Settle in an enclosed place and harmonize your heart-and-mind so that it is still and immovable as the Central Mountain.”
For this knowledge of transcending the ordinary as well as the sacred, you must put to rest cause and effect; to die sitting or standing, you must rely on the power of the unshakable still mind. Even if you give your whole life to it, you may still not be successful, let alone if you waste your time! How will you deal with karma? Therefore the ancients said: If you do not cherish the power of grounded stillness, you willingly yield to death, living uselessly with your eyes closed, drifting along.
I hope that all you friends on the path of Zen, will read this over and again, so that you and others may realize true awakening.
一百二十問 Yibai ershi wen
120 Questions from the 【禅苑清規】 Chanyuan qinggui
a Chinese collection of rules for monastic zen life
Translated by Antaiji
1. Do you respect Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, or not?
2. Do you look for your master, or not?
3. Have you aroused bodhi-mind, or not?
4. Do you surrender in faith to the Buddha, or not?
5. Have you extinguished your old emotions finally, or not?
6. Are you anchored firmly, without moving, or not?
7. Are you as deep as a canyon, or not?
8. Are you clear about the precepts, or not?
9. Have your body and mind found rest, or not?
10. Do you always love to practice zazen, or not?
11. Are you as clear and pure as the sky, or not?
12. Does your motivation last for ten thousand years, or not?
13. Are you immovable by circumstances, or not?
14. Do you manifest the truth, or not?
15. Are you beyond the discription of words, or not?
16. Has your restless mind finally found peace, or not?
17. Do you see your mind, when you watch things around you, or not?
18. Do you realize your own nature, when you hear sounds around you, or not?
19. Do you sit like Bodhidharma, just like a wall, or not?
20. Do you hide your body, just like a dragon hides his claws, or not?
21. Do you have thousand hands and eyes, or not?
22. Do you see an old buddha in the naked pillar, or not?
23. Is it easy for you to reach the way, or not?
24. Do you sacrifice yourself in practice just like soil piles up in a mountain, or not?
25. Do you meet Bodhidharma when you go astray, or not?
26. Are you completely in your practice, without being disturbed by your neighbours, or not?
27. Do you let rain fall in the north, when clouds pile up in the south, or not?
28. Do you fight like a lion, or not?
29. Does compassion open up like a flower, or not?
30. Do you waste your body, protecting the dharma, or not?
31. Do you use the old teaching to reflect on your mind, or not?
32. Do you use the three views to open the eyes of the gods, or not?
33. Is samadhi like play for you, or not?
34. Do you manifest the universal dharma gate, or not?
35. Have you penetrated the six aspects of phenomena, or not?
36. Have you found out about the ten mysteries, or not?
37. Do you realize how everything is connected as one net of causes and effects, or not?
38. Are you one with the ocean of the virtue of ten Buddha bodies, or not?
39. Do you first trust in Manjusri, or not?
40. Do you then follow Samantamukha, or not?
41. Is even the smallest of your actions guided by subtle samadhi, or not?
42. Do you check your words well, or not?
43. Is that what you say, in accord with that what is in your mind, or not?
44. Do you refrain from praising yourself and critizing the others, or not?
45. Do you step back to give way to the others, or not?
46. Do you realize the virtues of the others, or not?
47. Do you keep silent about the other's faults, or not?
48. Aren't you afraid of difficult questions, or not?
49. Do you refrain from talk and laughter, or not?
50. Do you enjoy silence, or not?
51. Don't you fool the foolish, or do you?
52. Do you rest in the community like a mountain, or not?
53. Do you practice modesty, or not?
54. Do you harmonize with the others, without fighting, or not?
55. Do you find the middle way, when a decision has to be made, or not?
56. Are you happy about well spoken words, or not?
57. Aren't you angry about true words, or are you?
58. Do you gladly accept your suffering, or not?
59. Can you listen to the bad words of the others, or not?
60. Does your mind always radiate joy, or not?
61. Don't you interfere into the affairs of the others, or do you?
62. Does your practice never slack down, or does it?
63. Don't you help yourself to what belongs to all, or do you?
64. Don't you use things to serve your own purposes, or do you?
65. Do you keep no savings, or do you?
66. Don't you collect treasures, or do you?
67. Don't you run after people because of their money, or do you?
68. Do you realize that you will have clothes to wear, even without weaving, or not?
69. Do you realize that you will have enough to eat, even without plowing, or not?
70. Do you realize that you will have peace when you stop fighting, or not?
71. Do you really understand that you are getting enough, or not?
72. Do you eat and drink moderately, or not?
73. Do you never get tired of sacrificing yourself, or do you?
74. Don't you expect others to sacrifice themselves for you, or do you?
75. Don't you have any extra robes and bowls, or do you?
76. Do you teach the dharma without expecting any gain, or not?
77. Don't you want to be respected and loved by the others, or do you?
78. Don't you wish to have many students, or do you?
79. Don't you wish to be famous, or do you?
80. Do you keep from socializing with the powerful, or not?
81. Don't you show off, or do you?
82. Don't you interfere into politics, or do you?
83. Do you respect the authorities of state, or not?
84. Don't you tell the fortune, or do you?
85. Don't you have relations with women, or do you?
86. Don't you envy those who are better and cleverer than you, or do you?
87. Aren't you jealous when you see the succes of the others, or are you?
88. Don't you take poverty lightly, or do you?
89. Do you respect the opinion of the others, or not?
90. Don't you hurt the other's feelings, or do you?
91. Does your practice mean the salvation of all sentient beings, or not?
92. Do you always think of protecting all living beings, or not?
93. Do you respect the old and love the young, or not?
94. Do you care for the sick, or not?
95. Are you with those who are imprisoned, or not?
96. Do you give food to the hungry and clothes to those who are cold, or not?
97. Do you suffer about the war far away, or not?
98. Don't you discrimante between the good and the bad, or do you?
99. Do you appreciate what the government does for you, or not?
100. Do you repay the love and care with which your father and mother brought you up, or not?
101. Are you grateful for the education that your teachers gave you, or not?
102. Do you appreciate the donations of the parish, or not?
103. Do you realize how much you owe to the help of your friends, or not?
104. Are you aware how many people are constantly working for you, or not?
105. Are you grateful for the divine help that guards you, or not?
106. Do you realize how much you owe to the protection through police and military, or not?
107. Do you share the misery of those in heaven, or not?
108. Do you suffer the eight sufferings of human beings, or not?
109. Are you hurt in the fight of Asura demons, or not?
110. Do you starve with the hungry ghosts, or not?
111. Do you pity the ignorance of the animals, or not?
112. Do you feel the pain of hell, or not?
113. Do you transcend love and hate equinamitously, or not?
114. Do you respect all things, just as if they were buddha, or not?
115. Do you love all things, just as if they were your own father and mother, or not?
116. Does your life consist of nothing but the wish to save suffering beings, or does it?
117. Do you reflect on your practice during the 24 hours of the day, or not?
118. Have you clarified the one great matter of life, or not?
119. Have you found great liberation, or not?
120. Have you realized great nirvana, or not?