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Kertek és konyhák indexlapra


Koreai konyha

A koreai címszavak latinbetűs átírásánál a Koreai Köztársaság
Kultúra és Turizmus Minisztériumának 2000. július 7-i szabványa volt az irányadó.
Herein, the romanization of Korean words is based on the Korean Romanization System
adopted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism on July 7, 2000.




Chive, Ciboulette alliacée
There are two kinds of chives: Korean and Chinese. Chinese chives are wider and mostly used in Chinese dishes. The chives used in Korea are flatter than Western chives and have a stronger flavor



Doenjang, szójapaszta
fermented soybean paste, pâte de soja fermentée (condiment de base de la cuisine coréenne)

More pungent than Japanese miso.
Dwenjang is a traditional Korean bean paste similar in texture and consistency to Greek hummus. Beans are ground by rock into fine bits during which they undergo chemical change which produces a fish-like smell. The squashed material is then put into large opaque pottery jars and left to ferment, during which time various beneficial bacteria transform the mixture into a further vitamin-enriched substance, similar to the way milk ferments to become yogurt. The end product is salty and quite thick. It can be eaten in raw paste-form by using it as a dip when eating vegetables, similar to the way Westerners dip celery into cheese. It can also be used to make stew (dwenjang jjigae), or as a component in miso-like soups.


Cheonggukjang, erjesztett szójabab, nattó

Cheonggukjang (Extra Strong Soybean Paste), Ragout de pâte de soja légerement fermentée au tofu,
A stew made with a thick soybean paste called cheonggukjang (similar to Japanese natto) with dubu (soybean curd / tofu), fully fermented kimchi, and pork. This paste is thicker and has a stronger smell than the regular soybean paste (doenjang).

Soybean Paste Soup, Soupe a la pâte de soja fermentée
A soup made of soybean paste (doenjang) and vegetables

Soybean Paste Stew, Ragout a la pâte de soja fermentée
A stew made of soybean paste (doenjang) and various vegetables. Similar to soybean paste soup (doenjangguk) but much thicker

Soybean Paste Mixed with Barley, Pâte de soja fermentée a l'orge
A sauce made of cooked barley, glutinous rice porridge, fermented soybeans, and salt



Gajeun-yangnyeom, koreai alapfűszerek: szójaszósz, zöldhagyma, fokhagyma, feketebors, őrölt piros csiliparika, szezámolaj és szezámmag
basic seasonings: soy sauce, green onions, garlic, black pepper, red chili pepper powder, sesame oil, and sesame seeds



, szójaszósz

, ecetes szójaszósz
Vinegared Soy Sauce, Sauce de soja au vinaigre
A mixture of soy sauce and vinegar. This tangy dipping sauce is served with fish dishes or pan-fried vegetables and meat patties

Seasoned Soy Sauce, Sauce de soja pour assaisonnement
A variation of soy sauce for the table or cooking. This mixture is made by adding green onions, garlic, sesame seeds, sesame oil, and black pepper or red chili pepper powder to soy sauce

Pickled Vegetables, Légumes marinés a la pâte de soja fermentée
Vegetables pickled in soybean paste (doenjang) or red chili pepper paste and served as a side dish. The most commonly used vegetables include white radish, cucumber, scallions, Korean melons (small yellow melons with a smooth rind), soybean leaves




, csilipaprika
Chili Pepper(s), Piment
The Korean red pepper or chili is usually less spicy than its Latin American cousin. Korean food uses both young green peppers as well as the ripe red ones. The red peppers are dried and ground into chili powder which can be stored for long periods

, gochu-garu, fűszerpaprika-őrlemény
Red Chili Pepper Powder, Poudre de piment
A powder made of ground Korean red chili pepper. This is a major ingredient used to spice many dishes in Korean cuisine

Gochu-jangajji, sós zöld csilipaprika
Pickled Green Chili Peppers, Piments verts marinés
Young green chili peppers are pickled in salt and water for a week, then mixed with a salty, spicy sauce

Gochujeon, rántott, töltött zöld csilipaprika
Pan-fried Stuffed Green Chili Peppers,
Piments verts farcis et panés
Green chili peppers cut lengthwise and stuffed with ground beef. The stuffed peppers are then coated in flour, dipped in egg, and pan-fried

Gochujjim, gőzölt zöld csilipaprika
Steamed Green Chili Peppers, Piments verts panés â la vapeur
Green chili peppers coated in flour, steamed, and seasoned with soy sauce and spices

Gochunnip-namul, blansírozott csilipaprika-levél
Chili Pepper Leaf Namul, Feuilles de piment assaisonnées
Side dish made of chili pepper leaves that are blanched and seasoned

Putgochu, éretlen zöld csilipaprika
Young Green Chili Peppers, Piment vert
Young green chili peppers that are picked before they turn red. Eaten fresh, or chopped and added to stews or stir-fries



, csilipaszta

hot chilli pepper paste, Red Chili Pepper Paste, Pâte de piment, la jiu [kínai]
One of the main components of Korean cuisine. This spicy red paste is made of red chili pepper powder, fermented soybeans, white rice flour and salt. It can be used as a cooking ingredient or put on the table as a separate dipping or mixing sauce

Gochujang is a popular Korean condiment made from glutinous rice powder mixed with powdered fermented soybeans and powdered red peppers. It is like a mixture of miso and chilli powder. The paste is traditionally fermented in the sun.
Other grains can be substitued for the glutinous rice, including normal rice, wheat and barley. A slight sweetener (sugar, syrup or honey) is also sometimes added.
this dark red, thick chili sauce from korea is made from chili peppers, glutinous rice, and soybeans, and is aged for up to one year. you can find it in any korean grocery.
Gochujang is Korea’s traditional red pepper paste. It is basically spicy, but also sweet, salty, and of savory odor. The Meju (made of boiled beans) powder, seasoned with salt and red pepper powder, is used to make Gochujang. The powdered malt mixed with sticky rice or regular rice powder or flour is also used. It is one of Korea’s most representative Jang, a kind of seasonings, which is made of fermented bean. The bright red Gochujang sauce also enhances the appearance of food. Vegetables or seafood, mixed with Gochujang are well-balanced in terms of nutrition.


Cho-gochujang, ecetes csiliszósz,
red chili pepper paste with vinegar, sauce de piment au vinaigre
Red chili pepper paste mixed with vinegar and sugar to make a more liquid dipping sauce with a sweet and sour taste. This sauce is most commonly served with raw fish dishes



Gyeoja-chojang, ecetes mustár
Mustard and Vinegar Sauce, Sauce a la moutarde et au vinaigre
Tangy sauce of mustard, vinegar and sugar. This generally accompanies cold dishes such as raw fish or naengchae, a dish consisting of thinly sliced vegetables and meat or seafood



, halszósz

pickled seafood, fermented fish sauce, salted fish pickle
Jeotgal is a sauce made of various kinds of fish or seafood, such as clams, or shrimp, that have been pickled in salt for a long period. This sauce can be served as a side dish or used as a seasoning for kimchi and other dishes.

Tohajeot, pácolt édesvízi rák
Pickled Freshwater Shrimps, Crevettes d'eau douce saumurées aux épices
A fish sauce made of freshwater shrimps pickled in salt, red chili pepper powder and sometimes green chili peppers, garlic, green onions and sesame seeds

Guljeot, sós osztriga
Spicy Pickled Oyster, Huîtres saumurées
Oysters pickled in salt with red chili pepper powder

Kkolttugijeot, sós polip
Pickled Small Octopus, Calmar mariné
A variety of small octopus that has been cleaned and pickled in salt

Baendaengijeot, sós hering
Pickled Large-eyed Herring, Harenguets saumurés
Sauce made of large-eyed herring that have been heavily salted and pickled to make a thick, dark fish sauce that will keep for a long time. Can be served as a side dish

Saeujeot, sós garnélarák
Pickled Shrimp, Crevettes saumurées
A salty fish sauce made of baby shrimp (saeu) pickled in salt. This sauce is used to make kimchi and to season soups and other dishes with a salty flavor

Seonggejeot, sós tengeri sün ikra
Pickled Sea Urchin Roe, Oursin saumuré
Yellow sea urchin roe pickled in salt

Eoriguljeot, pácolt osztriga
Pickled Oyster, Huîtres marinées
Fresh oysters pickled in salt, red chili pepper powder, and crushed garlic

Ojingeojeot, pácolt tintahal
Pickled Squid, Encornets saumurés
Slices of fresh squid pickled in salt with red chili pepper powder

Jaban, sós hal
Salted Fish, Poisson saumuré
Various types of fish that have been cleaned, salted and preserved. Served as side dishes

Jogaejeot, pácolt kagyló
Pickled Small Clams, Coquillages saumurés
Shelled clams pickled in salt. Served as a side dish




Jocheong, fermentált gabonaszirup
syrup made using fermented grains



Kkae, szezám
Sesame (Seeds), Sésame
Sesame seeds include basic sesame seeds and perilla, or wild sesame seeds. In both cases, the seeds are fried before the oil is extracted, which is used to provide flavor in Korean cuisine

Kkaesogeum, pirított szezámmagos só, gomasio [japán]
Sesame Salt, Graines de sésame grillées, moulues et salées
Sesame seeds roasted in a pan and ground with salt. One of the main seasonings in Korean cooking, this gives food a slightly buttery flavor


1) Kkaennip
, feketecsalán - Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa, Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo, Perilla frutescens var. sikokiana Nakai
wild sesame leaves, beefsteak leaf, purple mint; cserjés perilla, kínai bazsalikom, vad szezám,
This is a specialty large leaf perilla from Korea. The larger leaves are two-toned, bright green on top and light purple underneath. In Korean cuisine, the leaves are used as a wrap for cooked food. Use this distinct flavored herb for sushi, soups, salad, tempura or as an edible garnish.

Wild Sesame Leaf Namul, Feuilles de sésame assaisonnées
A side dish made of wild sesame leaves that are blanched and seasoned

Deep-fried Wild Sesame Leaves, Friture de feuilles de sésame a la farine de riz gluant
Wild sesame leaves coated on one side with a batter of glutinous rice starch and deep-fried. The leaves are sometimes sprinkled with sugar

Pickled Wild Sesame Leaves, Feuilles de sésame marinées a la sauce de soja
A pickled side dish made of wild sesame leaves marinated in soy sauce. Other versions include sesame leaves pickled in soybean paste or fish sauce

Pan-fried Wild Sesame Leaves with Fillings, Feuilles de sésame farcies et panées
Wild sesame leaves folded in half with a filling of seasoned minced beef. The stuffed leaves are coated in flour, dipped in egg, and pan-fried


2) Deulkkae, vad szezám
Wild Sesame, Sésame sauvage

Deulgireum, vadszezámmag olaj
Wild Sesame Oil, Huile de sésame sauvage
Oil extracted from wild sesame seeds


3) Chamkkae, szezámmag
Sesame (Seeds), Graines de sésame
Sesame seeds are an indispensable ingredient in Korean cooking. They are either roasted and used directly or ground with a little salt

Chamgireum, szezámolaj
Sesame Oil, Huile de sésame
Oil pressed from roasted sesame seeds. One of the main seasonings in Korean cooking


Koreai menta
, koreai izsóp
- Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze.
huo-xiang, kínai óriás izsóp, Korean hyssop, Korean mint
Másfél méterre növő, évelő növény, levelei ánizs ízűek

Perennial. Plant produces flavorful green mint leaves and intense blue flowers. Young leaves smell like licorice. Excellent in salads, stir-fries, and for seasoning meats and other dishes. Also makes a pleasing tea. Used for long lasting cut flowers and for cooking. Attracts beneficial insects.



, fokhagyma
Garlic, Ail
One of the most important ingredients in Korean cuisine

Pickled Garlic, Ail mariné a la sauce de soja, au vinaigre et au sucre
Whole garlic bulbs soaked in salt water for about ten days, then pickled in a mixture of soy sauce, sugar, and vinegar until the flavor has been completely absorbed by the garlic. This pickled garlic can be preserved for a long period

Garlic Stems, Tiges d'ail
The young, green stem of the garlic plant is steamed or braised and served as a side dish or pickled and enjoyed over longer periods

Pickled Garlic Stems, Tiges d'ail marinées a la pâte de piment ou a la sauce de soja au vinaigre
Garlic stems pickled in red chili pepper paste or soy sauce and vinegar



, fermentált szójatégla
Fermented Soybean Bricks, Graines de soja fermentées
Fermented soybeans that are dried into bricks. This is the main ingredient for soy sauce and soybean paste (doenjang)



, vízi borkóró, mételykóró - Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.
Korean parsley, water celery, water dropwort; seri [japán], rau cân [vietnami], shui qin [kínai], phakchi-lom [thai]
petrezselyemre vagy zellerzöldre emlékeztető levél



Saenggang, gyömbér
Ginger, Gingembre
Ginger is not only used to flavor food but also to make tea and traditional liquor

Saenggang-jeonggwa / saenggang-jeongwa
Candied Ginger, Gingembre confit
Thin slices of ginger simmered in sugar and sweet syrup until candied

Ginger Tea, Thé au gingembre
A tea made of fresh ginger slices cooked in boiling water. Powdered instant versions are now widely available



Sikcho, ecet
Vinegar, Vinaigre



Ssamjang, szójás csilipaszta
a mix of doenjang and gochujang


Feketebabos csiliszósz
, fűszeres sötét, sós babpüré csilivel
Black bean chili sauce, mandarin: lajiao douchi



Ssuk, fekete ürömfű
Mugwort, Armoise



Crown Daisy, Estragon
A herbal leaf vegetable with a relatively strong scent which is used by itself, cooked and seasoned as a side dish, or added to fish soups and other stews. It is also often used for rice wraps



, koreai koriander, ezüst szirtőr
- Houttuynia cordata Thunb.
(eoseongcho, osongcho, kamelleon pullaentu), Chinese lizard tail, fish mint, fish plant, fishwort, heartleaf, Himalayan spinach, lizard's tail, edible houttuynia, heartleaf houttuynia, Vietnamese fish plant, white chaplu, wild houttuynia, chameleon plant, stink grass [angol]; vap ca, diep ca, giap ca, ngu tinh thao, rau dap ca [vietnami], phak kan tong, phak khao tong [thai], dokudami [japán], ji cai [kínai]




, kimcsi, kimcshi
(gimchi, kimchee)
A föld alá süllyesztett edényekben erjesztett kimcsi nevű savanyúkáposzta, a koreaiak fő nemzeti étele.

Dél-Korea a külfölddel is szeretné megkedveltetni az évszázadok óta lakói koreaiak kedvenc fogásának számító kimcsit. E mindenhez fogyasztott, erősen fűszerezett, csípős savanyúságféle nélkül elképzelhetetlen a koreai konyha. Minden vidéknek és minden háznak megvan a saját ízlése szerint készült kimcsije. Az erős paprikával, metélőhagymával, gyömbérrel, sóval és rengeteg fokhagymával erjesztett káposzta vagy retek koleszterinmentes, E-vitaminban és rostokban gazdag, s állítólag hatásos a rák ellen.
A csípős savanyúságot a világ egyre több országába exportálják. Az első kimcsigyár a 70-es években jött létre, főként a külföldön élő koreaiak ellátására, de azóta már kétszáz fölött van a kimcsit gyártó üzemek száma. 1990 óta évi 20-30 százalékkal emelkedett a kimcsi kivitele. A termék 70 százalékát Japánban adják el, ahol különösen keresettek a koreai ételek. Az utóbbi években újabb piacok – köztük India, Észak-Írország, Ghána és Szenegál – nyíltak meg a kimcsi előtt.
A kimcsimárkák közül a legjobb a „Chonggajip Kimchi” nevű termék. Tizenhétféle kimcsit kínál, köztük kínai káposztakimcsit, retekkimcsit, uborkakimcsit, hallal és sokféle zöldséggel töltött kínai káposztakimcsit, valamint egy szelídebben fűszerezett, kevésbé csípős gyerekkimcsit.
A szöuli kormány 10 milliárd vonos (12 millió dolláros) kutatási programot indított annak érdekében, hogy a kimcsi meghódíthassa a világot. Megpróbálnak kikísérletezni egy olyan új receptet, amely nemzetközi sikert arathat, s kutatják a kimcsinek az egészségre gyakorolt jótékony hatását is.
A savanyú káposztából készített, retekkel, pirospaprikával, fokhagymával és gyömbérrel fűszerezett étel a koreai konyha szimbóluma.
E mindenhez fogyasztott, erősen fűszerezett, csípős savanyúságféle nélkül elképzelhetetlen a koreai konyha. Minden vidéknek és minden háznak megvan a saját ízlése szerint készült kimcsije. Az erős paprikával, metélőhagymával, gyömbérrel, sóval és rengeteg fokhagymával erjesztett káposzta vagy retek koleszterinmentes, E-vitaminban és rostokban gazdag, s állítólag hatásos a rák ellen.
A csípős savanyúságot a világ egyre több országába exportálják. Az első kimcsigyár a 70-es években jött létre, főként a külföldön élő koreaiak ellátására, de azóta már kétszáz fölött van a kimcsit gyártó üzemek száma. 1990 óta évi 20-30 százalékkal emelkedett a kimcsi kivitele. A termék 70 százalékát Japánban adják el, ahol különösen keresettek a koreai ételek. Az utóbbi években újabb piacok – köztük India, Észak-Írország, Ghána és Szenegál – nyíltak meg a kimcsi előtt.

Molnár B. Tamás: A kán káposztája
Magyar Nemzet, 2004. december 24., 39. oldal

Kimcsi: a koreai savanyú káposzta

Korea nemzeti étele, egyes felmérések szerint évente húsz kilót megesznek belőle. Mindenhez, minden alkalomból fogyasztják, és olyan egészséges, hogy még a madárinfluenzát is majdnem meggyógyította. Ez a kimcsi.
A kimcsi, pontosabban az őse Kínából érkezett a Koreai-félszigetre, ahol a tizenharmadik század óta fogyasztják rendszeresen. Eredetileg sózott zöldség volt, kialakulásának ugyanolyan praktikus okai vannak, mint bármilyen más savanyítás kialakulásának: tartósítani kellett az ősz végén-tél elején leszedett rengeteg káposztát, hogy ne vesszen kárba, és tavaszig fogyasztható legyen. A tartósításnak már vannak más, hatékonyabb módjai is, de a közben eltelt évszázadok alatt a kimcsi része lett a koreai konyhának. A kimcsi készítésében a hagyományok még mindig erős szerepet játszanak. Novemberben, amikor eljön a kimcsieltevés ideje (pontosabban: az év tizedik holdjának idején), hegynyi káposztahalmok közül vadásszák az emberek a legszebb, legjobb darabokat, az ízesítéshez használt zöldhagyma, szardella, apró sózott rák iránti kereslet éves csúcsokat dönt. 2010-ben, amikor a kimcsi alapanyagainak ára az egekbe szökött , és sok középosztálybeli család nem engedhette meg magának a káposzta és egyéb zöldségek megvásárlását, a koreai lapok egyenesen nemzeti tragédiát emlegettek - és a New York Times cikke alapján egyáltalán nem túloztak.
A kimcsi Korea nemzeti savanyúsága, bár amikor savanyúságot írunk, akkor nem úgy kell rá gondolni, mint a mi savanyú káposztánkra: gyakorlatilag mindenhez eszik, és mindig: reggelire éppen olyan megszokott, mint ebédre vagy vacsorára. Tulajdonképpen képtelenek nélküle meglenni, amit jól mutat az is, hogy amikor Dél-Korea első asztronautája 2008 áprilisában az űrutazásra készült, kormánya dollármilliókat ölt egy olyan kimcsi kifejlesztésébe , amelyet nyugodtan föl lehet vinni az űrbe. Külön múzeuma van, ahol több mint 187 féle történelmi kimcsiváltozatot dokumentálnak.
Az egészségre gyakorolt kedvező hatását ezerszer bizonyították: nagy a rosttartalma, kevés kalória van benne, és tele van A-, C-, B- vitaminnal. De a legkomolyabb előnye az erjedést segítő baktériumflóra (amely a joghurtban is megtalálható), ez segíti az emésztést, jótékonyan hat a bélműködésre, sőt bizonyos - egyelőre nem megerősített - kutatási eredmények szerint nagy antioxidáns-tartalma rákellenes hatású. Erre mondják az angolok, hogy superfood. A kimcsi superfood-státuszát jól mutatja, hogy a 2005-ös Nagy Madárinfluenza-hiszti idején például majdnem kikiáltották a betegség egyetlen hatékony gyógyszerének.)
A kimcsit általában novemberben kezdik készíteni, bár a hűtőszekrény elterjedése óta nincs olyan szigorúan évszakhoz kötve. A kimcsi erjedését ugyanis a hőmérséklet segítségével lehet kontrollálni, ha túl hideg van, akkor megfagy, ha túl meleg van, akkor megsavanyodik, túlerjed - mindkettő élvezhetetlen kimcsit eredményez. Hagyományosan ezért használták a jellegzetes erjesztő edényeket , amelyeknek a segítségével egyenletes hőmérsékleten lehetett tartani a zöldséget. Koreában sokan még ma is ezt használják, nem szokatlan látvány az ajtók elé kihelyezett egy vagy akár több ilyen edény, és mellé a jellegzetes, sokak által kellemetlen talált kimcsiillat, amely az erjedés folyamán keletkező gázoknak köszönhető. A sózást követően a zöldségek elkezdenek erjedni, eközben a káposztában levő cukor különböző savakká alakul, és széndioxid szabadul fel. Emiatt a karakteres illat miatt sokan egyébként külön hűtőszekrényt rendszeresítenek a savanyúság számára, nehogy a többi étel átvegye a zamatot.
Noha a legismertebb és legkedveltebb formájában kínai kelből készül, gyakorlatilag mindenféle zöldséget lehet ilyen módon savanyítani, az uborkától kezdve a karfiolon keresztül a szójacsíráig.

Kimcsi (koreai savanyú zöldség)

4-5 kisebb kínai kel külső leveleit leszedjük, a belső részt hosszában négyfelé vágjuk. Két-három napig a napon vagy a kályha mellett szokták szárítani, mert ez növeli a természetes édességét. Ezután széles edénybe tesszük, alaposan besózzuk, vízzel felöntjük, szobahőmérsékleten tartjuk: 1 kiló káposztára 5 deka sót és 2 deci vizet vegyünk. Ez az első fázis, amely intenzív sózást igényel. 8-10 óráig állni hagyjuk, közben egyszer megforgatjuk. Amikor már megereszkedett, kimossuk, a nedvességet szelíden kinyomkodjuk.

Ezután elkészítjük a következő keveréket: 1 kiló káposztára számítva 2 gerezd fokhagymát és egy kis darab gyömbért finomra vágunk, összekeverjük (az erősségétől függően) kettő-négy evőkanál paprikapehellyel. Ha nem kapunk az Ázsia-boltban, magozzunk ki piros paprikát, és éles késsel vágjuk finomra. Teszünk még hozzá sót (egy kiló káposztára ekkor már elég 8-10 gramm), és feleannyi cukrot.

Ezt a fűszerkeveréket összevegyítjük egy kilóra 30 deka jégretekkel – amelyet először fél centi vastag karikákra, majd fél centi széles hasábokra vágunk – és csíkokra darabolt újhagymával. Az eredetibe mindenképpen kerül valamilyen sózott, szárított rák. Ezt mi kilónként két-három darab finomra vágott szardellával helyettesítjük. Kilónként fél pohár (1,25 dl) langyos vizet adunk hozzá.

Óvatosan összevegyítjük a káposztát és a retkes-hagymás-fűszeres keveréket, a fűszereket beledörzsölgetjük a káposztába. Tegyük érlelőedénybe, a tetejére helyezzünk nehezéket, zárjuk le légmentesen. Hagyjuk szobahőmérsékleten erjedni. A harmadik, negyedik és ötödik napon alaposan kavarjuk meg. A kimcsi az erjedés kezdetén a negyedik-ötödik napon a legjobb. Az érett káposztát csavaros üvegbe tesszük és hűtőszekrénybe tesszük, hogy leállítsuk a további erjedést, ott is tároljuk. Egy öttagú koreai család több száz így elkészített káposztafejet fogyaszt el a tél folyamán.

Dongchimi: Radish Kimchi in Water
Kimchi Museum

Diced Radish Kimchi, Kimchi pimenté de navets coupés en dés
Kimchi made of diced white radish. The radish pieces are first salted and then mixed with the traditional kimchi sauce of red chili pepper powder, fish sauce, garlic, and green onions


Whole Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kimchi de chou chinois aux épices
The basic kimchi made in large quantities in early winter. Whole Chinese cabbages are first salted and then a kimchi sauce made of julienned white radish, red chili pepper powder, garlic, green onions, and fish sauce is spread between the layers of cabbage


Whole Radish Kimchi, Kimchi de jeunes radis
A kimchi made of young white radishes used whole with the stems and leaves. The radishes are seasoned with red chili pepper powder, green onions, garlic, ginger and fish sauce, then left to cure. It literally means bachelor kimchi, because the stems are reminiscent of the long ponytails of unmarried men in traditional times. Also called altari kimchi

Soybean Leaf Kimchi, Kimchi de feuilles de soja
A variation of kimchi made of salted soybean leaves mixed with sliced radish and fish sauce and laid between the cabbage leaves

Green Onion Kimchi, Kimchi de ciboulette
A kimchi made with lightly salted green onions seasoned with pickled anchovy sauce, garlic and red chili pepper powder

Mustard Leaf Kimchi, Kimchi de moutardelle
A kimchi made of gat, a kind of mustard leaf. The stems and leaves are seasoned with pickled anchovy sauce. The strong flavor of the mustard leaf and the anchovy is what makes this kimchi popular

Godeulppaegi Kimchi, Kimchi de 'godeulppaegi'
A strongly flavored kimchi made with a wild flowering plant (godeulppaegi) which has been soaked in water for up to ten days to remove its bitter taste

Radish Water Kimchi, Kimchi aux morceaux de navet et de chou
A slightly pink kimchi made with Chinese cabbage, thinly sliced white radish, a large amount of water, and minari (a leafy vegetable resembling parsley) to give this kimchi a distinctive a flavor

Radish Kimchi in Water, Kimchi de navet a l'eau
A kimchi made of whole white radishes, green onions, garlic, ginger and salt water. The radishes are rolled in salt and put in a big jar with the other ingredients and salt water. After being cured, this kimchi has plenty of flavorful water which is chill

Mixed Kimchi, Kimchi de chou et de navet
A kimchi prepared with sliced Chinese cabbage (instead of whole) and white radish mixed with green onions, garlic and pickled shrimp sauce

Radish Stem Kimchi, Kimchi de feuilles de radis
A kimchi made of the green part of radish stems and leaves

Water Kimchi, Kimchi a l'eau
A variation of kimchi in water. Both the water and the crunchy pickled vegetable in it are eaten. This kind of kimchi includes sliced radish and cabbage kimchi (nabak-kimchi), kimchi made with whole baby white radishes and their stalks (yeolmu-kimchi)

Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kimchi de chou chinois
The most basic type of kimchi, made of whole Chinese cabbages. The cabbages are cut in half and then salted or soaked in salt water. After the leaves have lost some of their water, a mixture of julienned white radish, garlic, red chili pepper powder, green onions
Interestingly, although baechu kimchi (Chinese cabbage kimchi) is now the most common variety, it was developed relatively recently. Chili peppers were introduced to Korea (by way of Japan) only in the early 17th century, and thus Kimchi utilizing red peppers would have been popularized some years after that (200 years, by one estimate). In addition, the introduction of Chinese cabbage probably did not occur until the 19th century; Kimchi before then would have been made from more indigenous vegetables.


White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kimchi blanc non pimenté
A version of cabbage kimchi with very small amounts of red chili pepper powder used only for seasoning the julienned radishes in the sauce

Wrapped Kimchi, Kimchi farci aux épices variées
A kimchi made of quartered cabbages with kimchi seasonings spread between the layers of leaves and wrapped separately in a large cabbage leaf. The fist-sized bundles are put into jars and left to season together.

Chive Kimchi, Kimchi de ciboulette alliacée
A kimchi made of chives mixed with fish sauce, red chili pepper powder, crushed garlic and some glutinous rice starch

Bineul-kimchi / mubineul-kimchi
Stuffed White Radish Kimchi, Kimchi de navets farcis
A kimchi made of whole white radishes with diagonal slits that are stuffed with sliced radish and seasonings

Chinese Cabbage and Radish Kimchi, Kimchi de chou et de navet coupé
A kimchi made of pre-salted Chinese cabbages and white radishes cut into pieces then mixed in kimchi spices or fish sauce

Stuffed Kimchi, 'Sobagi' kimchi
A kimchi made of vegetables such as cucumber, white radish, eggplant, or chili pepper that are slit lengthwise and stuffed with spicy filling

Turnip Kimchi, Kimchi de navet a la mode de Ganghwa
A kimchi made of turnips (smaller than the usual white radish used in Korea). This is a specialty of the Ganghwado region


Young Summer Radish Kimchi, Kimchi de feuilles de jeunes radis
A kimchi made of young summer radish (smaller roots with larger leaves). This kimchi has a lot of water and is lightly seasoned

Oi-sobagi / oi-sobagi-kimchi
Stuffed Cucumber Kimchi, Kimchi de concombre farci
A kimchi made of cucumbers cut into three to four sections, slit lengthwise, and stuffed with a filling of green onions, garlic, ginger and red chili pepper powder

Soy Sauce Kimchi, Kimchi a la sauce de soja
A kimchi made with soy sauce. The young leaves in the heart of the cabbage are sliced and mixed with julienned white radish, red chili threads, garlic, green onions, ginger, minari (Korean parsley), and mushrooms. All the ingredients are then seasoned tog

Spring Onion Kimchi, Kimchi de ciboulette
A kimchi made of lightly salted spring onions mixed with kimchi seasonings

-kimchi, aszalt retek kimcsi
dried radish kimchi, Julienne de navets séchés



, körte, nashi
Korean Pear, Poire
One of the most popular fruits in Korea, the Korean pear is bigger and rounder than its Western counterpart. It also has a very crunchy texture and more juice. Sliced pear is added to many Korean dishes


, szelídgesztenye
Chestnut(s), Marron (châtaigne)
The chestnut is used in diverse ways in Korean cuisine. Chestnuts are peeled and eaten raw as a companion for alcoholic drinks and put into cold dishes and even kimchi.

Peeled Fresh Chestnuts, Marrons crus épluchés
Chestnuts peeled and served fresh

Candied Chestnuts, Marrons glacés
Peeled chestnuts simmered in water with sugar or honey until candied

Mashed Chestnut Sweets, Boulettes de purée de marrons aux pignons
Mashed cooked chestnuts mixed with cinnamon and sugar, molded into chestnut shapes, and rolled in ground pine nuts or cinnamon


Boksunga, őszibarack


Chamoe, sárgadinnye
Korean Honey Melon, Melon jaune
A small, oval melon with a smooth, yellow rind and white ridges running lengthwise. Along with the watermelon, this is one of the most common summer fruits


, jujuba
Jujube(s), Jujubes
Jujubes are also known as Korean dates. They can be eaten fresh and green off the tree but more often are dried and used in desserts as a garnish, or steeped in traditional herb teas to counter the bitter taste of the medicine

Jujube and Ginger Tea, Thé aux jujubes et au gingembre
A tea made of simmering ginger and jujubes (Korean dates) and then adding honey. This tea is taken as a cold remedy

Jujube Tea, Thé aux jujubes
A traditional tea made of jujubes (Korean dates), sweetened with honey and garnished with pine nuts

Mashed Jujube Sweets, Boulettes de purée de jujubes aux pignons
Steamed and mashed jujubes (Korean dates) mixed with sugar and molded back into their original shape. The balls are rolled in ground pine nuts to hold their shape and prevent them from sticking to each other


Eunhaeng, ginkómag
gingko, noix de ginkgo


Gam, hurma, datolyaszilva - Diospyros kaki Thunb.
persimmon, kaki

Hurmalevél tea

persimmon leaf tea

, kakiszilva ecet
persimmon vinegar

Dried Persimmon, Kaki séché
Persimmons that are peeled and fully dried in the open air. This very sweet, flavorful dried fruit is eaten on its own as a dessert or a snack and is also used in rice cakes or dessert drinks like persimmon punch

, aszalt kakiszilva kompót fahéjjal és gyömbérrel ízesítve
Cinnamon Punch with Dried Persimmon, Boisson sucrée au kaki séché
A sweet punch is made of ginger, cinnamon sticks and sugar simmered together in water. Dried persimmons are added after cooling and the punch is served with a few pine nuts floating on top. One of Korea’s most popular dessert drinks

Hwajeon, pan-fried dough topped with petals of balsam, persimmon flower and cockscomb


Gwapyeon, kandírozott gyümölcs
Traditional Candied Fruit, Gâteau traditionnel aux fruits confits
Candied fruit that has been cooked in boiling water and strained, then left to harden in attractive shapes

Glazed Fruits and Nuts, Fruits confits
Fruits and nuts, especially chestnuts, jujubes (Korean dates), and ginger, that have been simmered in honey, sweet syrup and sugar until glazed

Candied Fruits or Roots, Gâteaux aux fruits ou racines cuits au miel
Traditional sweet treats made of fruits or roots candied in honey or syrup


, mandarin
Mandarin Orange, Clémentine


Haisung, koreai cirbolyafenyő-mag - Pinus koraiensis


Hallabong, "orros" édesnarancs - Citrus sphaerocarpa, [Citrus unshiu Marcov × C. sinensis Osbeck] × C. reticulata Blanco
Könnyen hámozható, mézédes narancs, nagyszemű, 20 dkg-osra nő, csak Korea déli csücskében a Jeju-szigeten (Csedzsu) terem, nevét az ottani Halla-hegyről kapta, formája emlékeztet rá. Bonyolult termesztési technikája és fagyérzékenysége miatt ára háromszorosa a többi citrusénak. Japánban dekopon a neve.



Jat, fenyőmag
Pine Nut(s), Pignons

Pine Nut Cookies, Gâteau de riz frit au miel et aux pignons
Cookies made with rice flour that are deep-fried, dipped in sweet syrup, and topped with pine nuts

Pine Nut Candy, Friandise aux pignons
A sweet treat made of pine nuts mixed with maltose syrup, sugar and honey and left to harden


, zöldbarack, ume
Japanese Plums, Prunelle
Japanese plums are smaller and harder than regular plums. These green plums are very fragrant and are often used to make a sweet wine but can also be pickled in salt and sugar. Recently, they have been added to soybean paste (doenjang) and red chili pepper

Japanese Plum Liquor, Liqueur de prunelles
A liquor made by adding Japanese plums and sugar to soju


, mandarin


Mogwa, kínai birs
Chinese quince, coing
This fruit has a beautiful fragrance but is very hard and cannot be eaten fresh. Chinese quince are usually diced and mixed in honey or sugar. This mixture can be added to hot water to make a sweet fruit tea and is also used in fruit punch drinks


'Omija' (fruit de la famille âmaximowiczia sinensisâ)
The fruit of the Chinese magnolia vine, used in teas, wine, punches, and as a medicine. Omija literally means “five tastes” and is said to be all the flavors: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and spicy


Sagwa, alma
Apple, Pomme


, kajszibarack
Apricot, Abricot

Jellied Apricots, Abricots confits
Apricots that have been cooked in water, strained, and simmered in sugar or honey. Starch is added to make a jelly


Subak, görögdinnye
Watermelon, Pasteque


Ttalgi, földieper
strawberry, fraise


Ttangkong, földimogyoró
peanut, cacahouete

Yuja, keserű narancs
'Yuja' citron, agrume coréen

Glazed Citron | f. 'Yuja' glacé
Citron peel cooked in water then simmered in sugar water until glazed. The citron fruit is added during the glazing process




Wild Aster Namul, 'Chwi' (légume vert) assaisonné
A side dish made with blanched wild aster (a vegetable found in the mountains) that has been seasoned or stir-fried with other ingredients


Deodeok (todok), lándzsalevelű harangfolyondár - Codonopsis lanceolata
gyökeréből kimcsi készül


Doraji (toraji), hírharang, léggömbvirág - Platycodon grandiflorus
gyökeréből kimcsi készül


Kong, szójabab
Soybean, Soja
Soybeans are used to make soy sauce, dubu (soybean curd / tofu), and oil


Kongnamul, szójacsíra
Soybean Sprout Namul, Germes de soja
Sprouts about 5-7 centimeters long made from soybeans soaked in water. An inexpensive and popular ingredient for many Korean dishes

Seasoned Soybean Sprout Namul, Germes de soja assaisonnés
Blanched bean sprouts seasoned with green onions, garlic, soy sauce and sesame oil. This is one of the most common side dishes served in Korean homes


Gaji, tojásgyümölcs, padlizsán
Eggplant, Aubergine

Eggplant Namul, Aubergines assaisonnées a la coréenne
Eggplant steamed then marinated in soy sauce, green onions, garlic, red chili pepper powder, sesame oil and vinegar

Stuffed Eggplant,
Aubergines farcies mijotées au bouillon
Eggplants cut lengthwise, filled with seasonings, and simmered in broth

Pan-fried Eggplant, Aubergines panées
Eggplant slices coated with flour, dipped in egg, and pan-fried


Fresh Kimchi, Salade de chou a la sauce de soja
The leaves of Chinese cabbage or other leafy vegetables dressed in soy sauce and spices and served fresh as a side dish


Goguma, édesburgonya
Sweet Potato, Patate douce


Cooked Sweet Potato Stems, Tiges de patate douce sautées
Side dish made with the stems of the sweet potato. The stems are blanched and seasoned, then lightly fried with oil


Gomyeong, köretek
Garnish, Garnitures variées
Popular Korean garnishes include thinly red chili pepper threads, julienned egg yolk and whites (the yolks and whites are separated, beaten, and pan-fried like crepes), minced jujubes (Korean dates), chestnuts, walnuts, ground pine nuts, cooked gingko nut


Gosari, saspáfrányhajtás - Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum
warabi [japán]
Fiddlehead(s), Fougeres séchées
Young fern shoots are picked, blanched, drained, and then dried in the open air. The dried fiddleheads are used in soups or soaked in water and then pan-fried to make a side dish (fiddlehead namul)

Gobi, királypáfrány - Osmunda japonica
zenmai [japán]


Guksu, főtt metélt tészta
Noodle(s), Nouilles
Made from a multigrain flour, these thin noodles are cooked in boiling water, drained, and eaten in a broth or spicy sauce


Minari, vízi borkóró, mételykóró - Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.
water dropwort; seri [japán], rau cân [vietnami], shui qin [kínai], phakchi-lom [thai]
petrezselyemre vagy zellerzöldre emlékeztető levél


Miyeok, tengeri moszat
Seaweed, Algue, wakame

Seaweed Soup, Soupe aux algues ('miyeok')
A soup made of seaweed that is soaked, drained, then cooked in a broth of beef or dried anchovies. This soup is traditionally given to mothers after childbirth

Seaweed Wraps, Riz enveloppé dans des algues blanchies
Blanched fresh seaweed cut into strips which are used to wrap spoonfuls of rice and other foods

Dried Laver, Algues séchées
This seaweed has sheet-like fronds and grows along the western and southern coasts of Korea. It is dried in sheets, then lightly oiled, salted, and roasted. Gim is usually eaten wrapped around a spoonful of rice

Seasoned Laver, Feuilles d'algues séchées assaisonnées
Dried laver toasted, broken into small pieces, then seasoned

Rice Rolls in Laver, Rouleaux de riz farcis entourés de feuilles d'algues
To make this colorful roll, rice is spread on a dried laver sheet with beef, fried egg, pickled radish, and various steamed vegetables, then rolled and cut into slices

Kelp, Laminaires
Boiled and served cold with red chili pepper paste to make a vegetable for ssam, cooked to make a soup broth, or deep-fried as a side dish or snack

Dasimassam / naldasimassam
Kelp Wraps, Riz enveloppé dans une feuille de laminaire
Slices of fresh kelp used as a wrap for rice and other foods, dipped in pickled anchovy sauce before eating


Mu, daikon, jégcsapretek - Raphanus sativus


Shepherd’s purse, Capselle
a white-flowered plant in the cabbage family, which grows in fields and is picked and eaten in spring

Naengi-namul / naengi-namul-muchim
Capselles a la sauce de soja
A vegetable side dish made of naengi (shepherd’s purse) parboiled and mixed with a seasoned soy sauce


Seasoned Overripe Cucumbers, Concombre mur saumuré et épicé
Overripe cucumbers that have turned yellowish are peeled and soaked in salt water. The salted cucumbers are squeezed to eliminate excess water, then chopped and spiced with red chili pepper paste, vinegar, green onions, garlic, black pepper, and sugar


Nokdu, mungóbab
Mung Bean, Lentilles vertes
Mung beans are ground to make mung bean jelly, mung bean and vegetable pancakes, rice cake coating, and mung bean porridge, similar to a Chinese congee. Mung bean sprouts are also eaten as a vegetable side dish

Mung Bean Jelly, Gelée de lentilles vertes
A firm jelly made with mung bean starch. Also called cheongpomuk

Mung Bean Pancake, Galettes de lentilles vertes et de riz aux légumes
A fried pancake made of mung bean flour and a little glutinous rice flour cooked with pork, sliced kimchi, green bean sprouts, green onions and garlic


Dallae, vad fokhagyma
Wild Scallion, Ail sauvage
A long, thin spring herb with a flavor similar to green onions. It is eaten mixed with various spices as a side dish, in soybean paste (doenjang) stew, or as a seasoning for sauces


Namul, ízesített főzelék
seasoned vegetables, vegetable side dishes, légumes assaisonnés
The most popular way to enjoy vegetables in Korea is to prepare them as a namul by blanching them and then sauteeing them with seasonings and spices.

Side dishes of vegetables or wild leafy greens. There are two main methods of preparation : stir-frying the vegetables with spices, and blanching the vegetables and then seasoning them. The most common seasonings are soy sauce, garlic, sesame seeds, sesam oil

Namul include all edible herbs, leaves, roots and vegetables, but also refers to side dishes consisting of roots and greens that have been blanched and seasoned. The cooking method and seasonings vary according to the ingredients. Summer squash, cucumbers and bellflower root (doraji) are salted in advance and then stir-fried with seasonings. Mung bean sprouts, spinach, crown daisy, chili pepper leaves, wild sesame leaves and other green leaves are blanched and then fried or seasoned by hand. Soybean sprouts are blanched in salt water and seasoned. White radishes are julienned and seasoned first, then cooked in boiling water. The main seasonings used are soy sauce, garlic, sesame seeds, sesame oil and green onions, but some namul dishes are also flavored with red chili pepper powder, black pepper, red chili pepper paste and pickled shrimp sauce. Popular namul dishes include bellflower root namul, soybean sprout namul, and naengi namul.


Muchim, fűszeres ételek
seasoned or spiced dishes
These dishes consist of vegetable, root, and occasionally seafood ingredients tossed in a spicy dressing and served as a side dish. These dishes are the same as namul dishes and the two terms are often used interchangeably.


Po, szárított ételek
dried food
A popular snack, po are thin strips or sheets of dried meat or fish, similar to jerky. The dried beef is called yukpo and the dried fish is called eopo.

Dry Snacks, Amuse-bouche (assortiment de poisson et viande séchés)
Dry snacks, such as dried fish, dried beef or other meats, and dried peas and beans. Served with traditional liquors and other alcohol

Whole fish cleaned, salted, and dried in the open air

Dubu, szójasajt
soybean curd, tofu, pâté de soja

Soft Dubu, Flan de tofu ('sundubu')
Soft dubu (soybean curd / tofu) before thickeners are added to harden the curd to its usual texture


Deodeok gyökér
A perennial vine, the deodeok (bonnet bellflower) root has a distinctive smell. It is grilled or steamed as a side dish and is also used as medicine

Grilled Deodeok, Racines de deodeok grillées
Deodoek root marinated in soy sauce and red chili pepper paste and then grilled

Deodeok Kimchi, Kimchi aux racines de deodeok
A kimchi made of deodeok root, white radish and Chinese cabbage.

Spicy Deodeok, Racines de deodeok a la pâte de piment Deodeok root shredded into small pieces by hand and seasoned with a red chili pepper paste sauce

Deodeok Salad, Salade pimentée aux racines de deodeok
Deodeok root mixed with red chili pepper powder and other seasonings

Deodeok Pickles, Racines de deodeok a la pâte de piment
A side dish of deodeok roots pickled in red chili pepper paste


Bellflower Roots, Racines de campanule
The roots of the bellflower are either grilled or seasoned and served raw

Bellflower Root Namul, Racines de campanules cuites a l'ail
A side dish of bellflower roots cooked in water, drained, then sauteed with chopped green onions, garlic, and sesame salt

Candied Bellflower Roots, Racines de campanules glacées Whole bellflower roots (doraji) peeled and simmered in a mixture of water, honey, and sugar until candied


Dotori, tölgymakk
Acorn, Gland

Chilled Acorn Noodle Soup, Nouilles de farine de gland froides
Noodles made of acorn starch served in a chilled broth and garnished with seasoned vegetables

Acorn Cake, Gâteaux de farine de gland
A steamed cake made of acorn starch, millet flour, and a coating of ground beans and red beans

Acorn Starch Jelly, Gelée de farine de glands
A firm jelly made of acorn starch, often served with a seasoned soy sauce


Dollamul, Orpin
Sedum, a fleshy-leafed perennial that is found in the mountains. The tender young plants are often added to kimchi made in the spring or are made into a spring salad as a side dish


, mandzsu arália - Aralia elata (Miq.) Seemann
taranoki [japán], Japanese angelica tree
Tavaszi friss hajtásait kirántják.


Instant Noodles, Nouilles instantanées (âramyeonâ)
Very popular instant noodle soup that can be cooked in just four or five minutes


Mandu, gombóc
Dumpling(s), Raviolis
Dumplings consisting of thin, flat pieces of dough filled with vegetables, meat, and spices. These dumplings are either cooked in boiling water, steamed, or fried in oil

Dumpling Hot Pot, Marmite de raviolis aux légumes
A hot pot of dumplings, meat, and vegetables in a meat broth

Dumpling Soup, Soupe aux raviolis
A soup of dumplings in a clear meat broth topped with slices of beef and julienned egg garnish

Steamed Dumplings, Raviolis a la vapeur
Dumplings cooked in a steamer.


Butterbur Stem Namul, Tussilages sautés et assaisonnés
Blanched stems of the butterbur (sweet colt’s foot) sauteed and seasoned


Memil, hajdina
Buckwheat, Sarrasin
Buckwheat seeds are ground into a fine flour which is used to make noodles or a firm buckwheat jelly

Buckwheat Noodles, Nouilles de sarrasin froides
Cooked buckwheat noodles chilled and served with a dipping sauce made of dried fish and seaweed

Memilmuk / memilmuk-muchim
Buckwheat Jelly, Gelée de sarrasin (assaisonnée)
A firm jelly made of buckwheat that is sliced, topped with a seasoning sauce and shredded dried laver, and mixed with chopped kimchi

Buckwheat Noodle Soup, Nouilles dans un bouillon chaud
A warm buckwheat noodle soup in a beef broth served with kimchi. Also refers to all hot noodles


Myeolchi, szárított ajóka
Dried Anchovies, Anchois séchés
Anchovies are sun-dried and prepared differently according to their size. The large anchovies are used to make broth; the mid-sized ones are braised in soy sauce, and the smallest ones are pan-fried. Fresh anchovies are also pickled in salt

Sauteed Dried Anchovies, Anchois séchés sautés a la sauce de soja sucrée
A side dish of dried anchovies pan-fried with soy sauce or red chili pepper paste and glazed with sugar or maltose syrup


Mu, jégcsapretek
White Radish, Navet
An important ingredient in kimchi, white radish is also braised and used in soups

Seasoned Dried Radish, Julienne de navets séchés et assaisonnés
A side dish of julienned white radish that has been dried in the open air (a process that preserves vegetables over the winter) then briefly soaked in water and seasoned

Dried Radish Pickles, Julienne de navets séchés et marinés a la sauce de soja
Dried white radish slices pickled in soy sauce and mixed with other seasonings. Dried chili pepper leaves that have been soaked in water are often added as well

Pickled Radish, Navets saumurés
Autumn white radishes pickled whole in salt and kept until the following summer


, zselatin
Jelly, Flan de fécules diverses
A firm jelly made of acorn, mung bean, or buckwheat starch boiled in water and cooled until it sets

Dotorimuk, tölgymakk

Cheongpomuk, mungóbab

Memilmuk, hajdina


Maltose Syrup, Sirop d'orgeat
A syrup made of malt and rice or other cereals. This thick, sweet syrup is used in many dishes


Side Dishes, Plats d'accompagnement
A range of dishes eaten with rice to add flavor. The basic Korean meal consists of a bowl of rice, a soup or stew and some side dishes.

Assorted Side Dishes, Petits plats d'accompagnement
Side dishes such as cucumber pickles, beans or beef braised in soy sauce are made in large batches and served over a period of time. Most Korean households have an assortment of these dishes at any given time to provide a tasty accompaniment to rice


Bakogari-namul, szárított tökhéj
Gourd Peel Namul, Courges séchées mijotées avec assaisonnement
A side dish made of dried gourd skins that are soaked, seasoned, and cooked over low heat until the flavor is fully absorbed


Bap, főtt rizs
Cooked Rice, Bol de riz nature
Rice that has been washed, brought to a boil and simmered until cooked. In Korean, the expression ‘eating rice’ means to have a meal. Rice is unquestionably the essence of a Korean meal.

Boribap, árpás rizs
Barley Rice, Riz a l'orge
Rice cooked with barley, árpagyönggyel kevert főtt rizs

Sungnyung, pörköltrizs tea
Browned Rice Tea, Boisson chaude au gratin de riz
A tea made of the browned rice from the bottom of the rice pot. Water is poured into the pot and boiled until the slightly burnt rice on the bottom softens and mixes with the water. This popular drink is served hot after meals

Juk, rizskása
Porridge, Porridge de riz
Porridge made of rice or other grains simmered in water until thick. Served as a main dish or in smaller portions as an appetizer

Mieum, rizsnyák
Rice Gruel, Bouillie de riz légere
A thin, clear gruel made of one part rice and ten parts water. This is mostly given to patients because it is easy to drink

Chapssal, ragacsos rizs
Sweet Rice, Riz gluant
Sweet rice is stickier than plain white rice and is often used to make rice cake

Puffed Rice, Pop-corn de riz
Crispy rice flakes puffed like popcorn

Nurungji, pörkölt rizs
Browned Rice, Gratin de riz ('nurungji')
Crusty, browned rice made from the scorched part of steamed rice that is usually stuck to the bottom of the rice pot. It is eaten in hot water as a browned rice tea after a meal or fried as a crispy snack. Also called nurunbap


Baechu, kínai kel
Chinese Cabbage, Chou chinois
As the main ingredient in kimchi, white cabbage is halved and its layers of leaves are filled with a spicy mixture. Similar cabbages can be found in Japan and China


Spicy Chinese Cabbage Salad Kimchi, Feuilles de chou chinois saumurées et assaisonnées
A salad made of Chinese cabbage leaves that are separated and salted, then tossed in a dressing of red chili pepper powder, green onions, garlic, soy sauce, sesame oil and some sugar


Beoseot, gomba
Mushroom, Champignons
The most commonly used mushrooms in Korean cuisine are the

Mogi, fafüle gomba
wood ear mushrooms
(very dark and thin, used mostly in Chinese and Korean cuisine)

Neutari, laskagomba
oyster mushrooms

Paengi, enoki gomba
enoki mushrooms

, matsutake gomba
fragrant pine mushrooms

Ssari, ssaribeoseot, korall gomba
coral mushroom, clavaire
The caps are said to taste like chicken and the stems like abalone

Yangsongi, csiperke gomba
Button Mushroom, Champignon de Paris


Bulgogi (Korean Barbecue), Barbecue coréen (grillade de bouf mariné)
Thin slices of beef marinated in a mixture of soy sauce, sugar, green onions, garlic, black pepper, sesame seeds, and sesame oil and grilled at the table. Bulgogi is one of Korea’s most popular beef dishes


Sangchu, saláta
Lettuce, Laitue


Susu, köles
Millet, Sorgho


Sukju-namul, mungóbab csíra
Mung Bean Sprout Namul, Germes de soja blanchis et assaisonnés
A side dish of mung bean sprouts blanched in salt water and seasoned


Sigeumchi, paraj
Spinach, Epinards


Siraegi, szárított reteklevél
Dried Radish Leaves, Feuilles de chou et de radis séchées
Leaves of white radish or Chinese cabbage that have been dried to preserve them through the winter and used later in soups, stews or seasoned side dishes

Cooked Dried Radish Leaf Namul, 'Namul' de feuilles de chou et de radis séchées
Dried radish or Chinese cabbage leaves that have been cooked in water, seasoned, and sauteed lightly in oil. Ground dried anchovies or sesames are some of the unique seasonings used to flavor this dish


Sseumbagwi, vadsaláta
Wild Lettuce, Laiteron
A wild leafy green with edible roots and long, thin leaves that are slightly bitter. This is most commonly harvested from the mountains in the spring


Yeongeun. lótuszgyökér
Lotus Roots, Racine de lotus
Lotus roots are pan-fried, made into porridge, and also dipped in honey to make sweets


Yeolmu, hónapos retek
Young Summer Radish, Jeune radis


Oi, uborka
Cucumber(s), Concombre

Cucumbers Pickled in Soy Sauce or Red Chili Pepper Paste, Concombre salé
Salted cucumbers pickled in a mixture of vinegar, soy sauce and sugar, or put into a jar of red chili pepper paste or soybean paste (doenjang). Keeps for a long period and is served as a side dish

Oiji, sósvizes uborka
Cucumbers Pickled in Salt Water, Concombre saumuré
Cucumbers pickled by pouring hot salt water over them and letting them sit for a long time


, bojtorján - Arctium lappa L.
burdock, racine de bardane; gobo [japán]
Fiatal főgyökerét zöldségként használják.


Glazed Burdock, Racine de bardane mijotée a la sauce de soja
Burdock simmered in soy sauce, sesame oil, and sugar until glazed and garnished with sesame seeds and red chili pepper threads


Day Lily Namul, Lis jaunes blanchis et assaisonnés
Blanched day lily stems seasoned with soybean paste (doenjang), red chili pepper paste, green onions, garlic, sesame oil, and sesame salt. This is a spring dish


Insam, ginszeng
A root famous for its medicinal properties that is also used for cooking. Fresh ginseng is called susam and is served sliced as a special appetizer or dessert. It can also be made into a juice. Dried ginseng is most often used to make tea

Candied Ginseng, Ginseng au sirop
Sliced ginseng simmered until soft, then glazed in water with honey, sweet syrup, sugar and salt until candied

Insamju, ginszeng-likőr
Ginseng Wine, Liqueur de ginseng
Liquor fermented with ground ginseng or flavored by adding a pouch of ginseng to wine that has already been made

Insamcha, ginszeng tea
Ginseng Tea, Thé au ginseng
A tea traditionally made by simmering ginseng, jujubes (Korean dates), and peeled chestnuts. Recently, an instant powdered version has become widely available. Ginseng tea is served with pine nuts on top

Seasoned Young Ginseng, Petites racines de ginseng assaisonnées
Thin, young ginseng roots seasoned with a spicy soy sauce or vinegared red chili pepper paste

Candied Fresh Ginseng, Friandise de ginseng au miel
Pieces of ginseng simmered in sugar water then candied with sweet syrup or honey


Juksun, bambuszrügy
Bamboo Shoots, Pousse de bambou

Jugyeom, bambusz-só
Bamboo Salt, Sel de bambou
A flavored salt made by filling a hollow bamboo stem that has been cut into sections with plain salt. The sections are then scorched in a hot oven and the salt is removed for use. This salt is said to have a superior taste and medicinal benefits


Cham Namul, Feuilles de 'cham' assaisonnées
A wild leafy green with a strong scent, blanched or served fresh with various seasonings as a side dish


Gamja, burgonya
Potato, Pomme de terre


Hangwa, sütemény
Traditional Sweets, Assortiment de gâteaux coréens
Many types of traditional Korean sweets and cookies. They vary according to ingredients and preparation method


Malt Candy, Sirop de malt
A sweet, sticky candy made of hardened maltose syrup and sweet glutinous rice. This candy has the texture of toffee


Boondaegi, selyemhernyó báb


Saengseon-chobap, sushi
Raw Fish on Rice
Similar to Japanese sushi, thin slices of raw fish and a small amount of wasabi are placed on top of bite-sized lumps of white rice that has been cooked with a little vinegar and sugar





Shikkye, dansul, édes rizsmalátalé
(shikae), fermented rice punch, made from barley malt and glutinous rice
Boisson sucrée fermentée a base de riz
A traditional sweet dessert drink made of malt and rice. When served, there are often rice grains floating on top. Also called dansul


Clear Rice Wine, Liqueur de riz (blanche)
A clear, refined rice wine made from a thicker rice wine that has been strained several times. This type of rice wine is similar to Japanese sake


Azalea Liquor, Liqueur d'azalée
A sweet liquor made by adding azalea petals and sugar to soju. Also called dugyeonju


Green Tea, Thé vert coréen
A tea made from tea leaves picked when tender and green, then dried carefully to preserve the green color

Green Tea Rice, Riz au thé vert
Rice cooked in green tea instead of plain water

Sparrow's Tongue Green Tea, Thé vert 'jakseol'
A green tea made with the new leaves of that year. Jakseol literally means "sparrow's tongue" and refers to the shape of the tea leaf


Yulmu Tea, Thé aux grains de yulmu
A hot drink made by adding roasted ground Job’s tears (this white powder has a nutty flavor) into hot water with sugar or honey


Ginseng Wine, Liqueur de ginseng
Liquor fermented with ground ginseng or flavored by adding a pouch of ginseng to wine that has already been made


Ginseng Tea, Thé au ginseng
A tea traditionally made by simmering ginseng, jujubes (Korean dates), and peeled chestnuts. Recently, an instant powdered version has become widely available. Ginseng tea is served with pine nuts on top


Angelica Tea, Thé a l'angélique
A tea made from the root of the angelica plant


Arrowroot Tea, Thé a la racine de maranta
A tea made with the juice pressed from wild arrowroot. Powdered arrowroot can also be used


Gyeolmyeongja Tea, Thé des 'yeux brillants' (thé a base de graines d'une plante de la famille 'cassia nomame')
A tea made with the dried seeds of the sicklepod plant, which can be served hot or cold. This tea is known for its clarifying effects on the liver and eyes


Cinnamon Tea, Thé â la cannelle
Tea made of dried whole cinnamon sticks boiled with a small amount of ginger. This tea is usually garnished with minced jujubes (Korean dates).


Chrysanthemum Rice Wine, Liqueur de chrysantheme
Rice wine flavored by adding dried chrysanthemum petals to the wine during maturation


Clear Rice Wine, Alcool de riz médicinal
A rice wine made from steamed rice that has gone through several fermentation stages. Ingredients in traditional medicine are also added, giving this liquor its literal name of "medicinal wine" (yak means medicine)


'Soju' (eau-de-vie coréenne)
A clear, distilled liquor made of rice, sweet potatoes and other ingredients similar to vodka. Along with makgeolli, this is the most popular alcoholic beverage in Korea and is also the base liquor for many other drinks. The alcohol content is 20-25%


Beopju / gyeongju- beopju
Rice Wine (Gyeongju Style), Alcool de riz de qualité de Gyeongju
First created by a Gyeongju family, this high quality rice wine is made from both white and glutinous rice. The alcohol content is approximately 15%


Barley Tea, Thé a l'orge
Roasted barley cooked in water. Served both hot and cold, this is one of the most common beverages found in Korean homes and restaurants and is often served instead of water


Chinese Quince Tea, Thé au coing
A sweet tea made of thin slices of Chinese quince that have been preserved in honey


Thick Rice Beer, Alcool de riz ('makgeolli')
A thick, milky rice beer made by adding yeast and water to steamed white rice, glutinous rice, barley and wheat flour and leaving it to ferment at a set temperature. It is also called farmers’ beer


Thick Rice Beer, Alcool de riz ('dongdongju')
A beer made by fermenting rice with yeast. In Korean, the term dongdongju suggests something floating, referring to the rice grains that are often floating on top


'Munbaeju' (alcool traditionnel a base de millet et de sorgho)
A traditional liquor made of malted wheat, rice, and millet which originates in the Pyeongyang region of North Korea. It is famous for its fragrance which is said to resemble the munbae rose, hence its name. The alcohol content is around 40%


Ginger Tea, Thé au gingembre
A tea made of fresh ginger slices cooked in boiling water. Powdered instant versions are now widely available


Grain Powder Drink Mix, Farine de riz gluant grillé
A powder made from steamed rice that has been dried, toasted, and ground. It is mixed with cold water and sugar or honey to make a popular summer drink